- Roman Authors Of The 3rd Century B.C. (299–200 B.C.)
- Roman Authors Of The 2nd Century B.C. (199–100 B.C.)
- Roman Authors Of The 1st Century B.C. (99 B.C.-0)
- Roman Authors Of The 1st Century A.D. (1–99 A.D.)
- Roman Authors Of The 2nd Century A.D. (100–199 A.D.)
- Roman Authors Of The 3rd Century A.D. (200–299 A.D.)
- Roman Authors Of The 4th Century A.D. (300–399 A.D.)
- Roman Authors Of Unknown Date
Here we have gathered a list, a chronology, of Roman authors who wrote in Latin from the 3rd century B.C. to roughly the late 4th century A.D. We’ve included a few short sentences about each author to give you a quick overview of who they were and what they wrote.
The list is divided into centuries to make it easier to navigate. The authors are, as far as possible, arranged after their birth year. If no birth year is known, but a year of death is, the author has been sorted after that in relation to other authors. If only a vague century for the author’s active years is known, he/she has been sorted under that century. If no exact years are known, but known contemporaries are, the author has been sorted in close vicinity of said contemporary. At the end of the list, after the last century, you will also find a category called “Unknown date.”
The list contains Roman authors who wrote works in Latin; those only writing in Greek have been excluded.
Roman Authors Of The 3rd Century B.C. (299–200 B.C.)
Lucius Livius Andronicus, c.284‑c.205 B.C.
Andronicus was an epic poet originally from Greece who came to Rome as a slave. He translated Greek literature to Latin but also wrote tragedies and comedies. He has been considered to be the father of Latin literature. Only fragments survive of his works.
Gnaeus Naevius, c.270‑c.201 B.C.
Naevius was an epic poet and playwriter/dramatist. He is famous for angering the Metellus family with his satire and was ultimately exiled from Rome. Only fragments survive of his poems.
Titus Maccius Plautus, c.254–184 B.C.
Plautus was a playwright from Sarsina in northern Italy. He wrote about 130 plays, out of which 20 have survived. These plays are the earliest Latin literary works to have survived history in their entirety.
Suggested reading in Latin: The Life And Works Of Plautus (video in Latin)
Septem Locutiones Latinae ex Aulularia, Fabula Plauti
Ennius, 239–169 B.C.
Ennius was a writer and poet, as well as a Roman soldier from Rudiae in southern Italy. Ennius has been considered the father of Roman poetry. There are unfortunately only fragments left of his Annals, tragedies, and from his prose work Euhemerus.
(You can learn more about Ennius in Chapter 1 of 2000 years of Latin Prose, or you can watch a video in Latin about him here.)
Cato Maior, 234–149 B.C.
Cato Maior, also known as Cato the Elder was born as Marcus Porcius Priscus. Cato was a Roman military, legal advisor, consul, and censor, but was also a noted writer from Tusculum, Italy. He became famous for ending his speeches with, “Moreover, I advise that Carthage must be destroyed.” (You can learn more about him in Chapter 2 of 2000 years of Latin Prose.)
Caecilius Statius c.220‑c.166 B.C.
Caecilius Statius was a comic poet who started as a slave from Gaul. He was a friend of Ennius and was famous for adapting Greek comedies to Latin. We know of 42 of his works, but none survive in its entirety. Fragments of his works mainly come from Aulus Gellius’ (c. 125–180 A.D.) work Noctes Atticae.
Marcus Pacuvius, c.220‑c.130 B.C.
Pacuvius was a tragic poet (and painter!) from Brundisium, Italy. Pacuvius was the nephew of Ennius. Fragments of his work survive in quotes from Cicero.
Roman Authors Of The 2nd Century B.C. (199–100 B.C.)
Gnaeus Gellius, lived during the 2nd century B.C.
Gnaeus Gellius was a historian who wrote a huge historical work, Annales, in at least 97 books. Only fragments remain.
Lucius Cassius Hemina, lived during the 2nd century B.C.
Lucius Cassius Hemina was an annalist who composed his Annales in four books from the founding of Rome to 146 B.C. Only fragments remain.
Hostius, active during the 2nd century B.C.
Hostius was a Roman epic poet and author of a poem believed to be about the Istric War of 129 B.C. spanning over at least seven books. Now only fragments remain.
Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus, lived during the 2nd century B.C.
Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus was a politician, historian, and consul (in 129 B.C.) who wrote a treatise on Roman law, Libri magistratuum. Only fragments remain.
Publius Terentius Afer c.195‑c.159 B.C.
Terentius, known to most as Terence, was originally a slave brought to Rome by the senator Terentius Lucanus who became a comedic playwright. He died young, only having written six comedies – all of which survive to this day.
Suggested reading and watching: The Life And Works Of Terence
Cornelia, c.190s‑c.115 B.C.
Cornelia, also known as the mother of the Gracchi, was the daughter of Cornelius Scipio Africanus and mother of two of Rome’s famous politicians; Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus. Cornelia wrote letters and fragments of them that might be authentic survive with Cornelius Nepos’ work (c.110–24 B.C.).
You can learn more about Cornelia and her son Gaius Gracchus in Chapter 3 of the Latin Anthology 2000 years of Latin Prose.
Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, c.180 B.C.-?
Calpurnius – not to be confused with other men from the gens Calpurnia sharing the same name that followed in history – was a Roman consul and censor and is thus sometimes referred to as “Censorinus.” He was also a historian famous for his Annales in seven books, most of which are lost.
Gaius Lucilius, c.180–103/2 B.C.
Lucilius was a satirist belonging to the Roman equestrian class. Only fragments remain of his works.
Lucius Accius, or Attius, c. 170–90 B.C.
Accius, or Attius, was a poet and playwright from Pesare, Umbria, with a good reputation in his own time for reworking Greek tragedies as well as writing original plays. Titles and fragments of about 50 plays remain.
Publius Sempronius Asellio, c. 158–91 B.C.
Publius Sempronius Asellio was a military tribune and historian who wrote Rerum Gestarum Libri, also known as Historiae, in at least fourteen books. A few quotes from the work remain in other authors’ works.
Gaius Gracchus, 154–121 B.C.
Gaius Gracchus was a famous orator and tribune of the plebs, noted in his day for his pure and elegant Latin. Fragments from a few of his speeches are still in existence.
(For more about Gaius Gracchus, see Chapter 3 of the digital Anthology 2000 years of Latin Prose)
Lucius Coelius Antipater, contemporary of Gaius Gracchus (154–121 B.C.)
Antipater was a jurist, an orator, and a historian who wrote annals and a history of the Second Punic War. Only fragments of his works are extant.
Quintus Lutatius Catulus, 149–87 B.C.
Catulus was a consul, a general, and an author who wrote a history of his own consulship. He also wrote short poems and epigrams, as well as an epic on the Cimbrian War. Only two of his epigrams have been preserved.
Valerius Aedituus, contemporary, and friend, of Quintus Lutatius Catulus (149–87 B.C.)
Aedituus was a Roman poet who wrote erotic epigrams that have been quoted and thus preserved in Aulus Gellius’ (c.125–180 A.D.) work Noctes Atticae.
Aulus Furius Antias, contemporary, and friend, of Quintus Lutatius Catulus (149–87 B.C.)
Aulus Furius Antias was a Roman poet. Little is known of him and his works, but a few lines from his work Annales were quoted by Macrobius (early 5th century) in his work Saturnalia.
Porcius Licinus, contemporary of Quintus Lutatius Catulus (149–87 B.C.) and Valerius Aedituus
Licinus was a Roman poet that we know next to nothing about. We have seven fragments from his work preserved in Aulus Gellius’ (c.125–180 A.D.) work Noctes Atticae.
Titus Quinctius Atta, ?-77 B.C.
Atta was a writer and poet. He wrote comedies, and we have titles and fragments remaining of twelve of his plays. He also supposedly wrote epigrams.
Lucius Cornelius Sisenna, c.120–67 B.C.
Sisenna was a praetor and an annalist famous for supporting Emperor Sulla (reign 112–78 B.C.), fighting pirates under Pompey Magnus (106–48 B.C.), and having written the now, save for a few fragments, lost Historiae.
Valerius Antias, contemporary of Sisenna (c.120–67 B.C.)
Valerius Antias was a Roman annalist who wrote the history of Rome from Romulus and Remus to Sulla (reign 112–78 B.C.) in at least 75 books. Though his work is no longer with us, he has been referred to by other Roman historians such as Livius (64/59 B.C.-17 A.D.) and Gellius (c.125–180 A.D.).
Marcus Terentius Varro, 116–27 B.C.
Varro was a Roman scholar and author, sometimes referred to as Varro Reatinus. It has been estimated that Varro wrote more than 74 Latin works in a variety of genres, such as literary history, rhetorical works, philosophy, poetry, and history. You can learn more about Varro, his life, and works in Chapter 8 of the Latin Anthology 2000 years of Latin Prose.
Tigellius was a lyric poet from Sardinia. He was a contemporary of Julius Caesar and Cicero; the latter mentioned him in his letters. He is also mentioned as a singer by Horatius in his Satires.
Marcus Tullius Cicero, 106–43 B.C.
Cicero was a Roman author, politician, consul, lawyer, philosopher, one of antiquity’s greatest orators, a diligent letter writer, and one of the most famous people in history. We have a rather large body of Cicero’s works preserved; 52 speeches and several works on rhetoric, politics, and philosophy, as well as 37 books of letters. Learn more about Cicero in Chapter 5 of 2000 years of Latin Prose.
Gaius Licinius Macer, contemporary of Cicero (106–43 B.C.), died 66 B.C.
Licinius Macer was a Roman annalist and praetor. Macer wrote a history of Rome in 16 books, all of which are now lost. The work is referenced by both Livius, also known as Livy (64/59 B.C.-17 A.D.), and Macrobius (early 5th century). He committed suicide in 66 B.C. after Cicero had him convicted of bribery and extortion.
Lucius Lucceius, contemporary of Cicero (106–43 B.C.)
Lucceius was an orator and historian who wrote a history of the Social and Civil Wars. He was also a letter-writing friend of Cicero’s.
Aulus Caecina Severus, contemporary of Cicero (106–43 B.C.)
Aulus Caecina Severus was an author who wrote critical texts against Julius Caesar and was banished for them. He is famous for being defended by Cicero (106–43 B.C.) in the speech Pro Caecina from 69 B.C. Correspondance between Cicero and Caecina is preserved in Cicero’s Epistulae ad Familiares. There are also fragments of Caecinas scientific work preserved in Seneca the Younger’s (4 B.C.-65 A.D.) work Naturales Quaestiones.
Decimus Laberius, c. 105–43 B.C.
Laberius was an author belonging to the Roman eques who wrote mimes. Fragments of his work survive.
Marcus Furius Bibaculus, 103 B.C -?
Bibaculus was a Roman poet from Cremona in northern Italy. He is famous for his satirical poems but also wrote a work in prose called Lucubrationes. He might also have been the author of an epic poem on Julius Caesar’s Gallic Wars. Fragments remain of his work.
Gaius Julius Caesar, 100–44 B.C.
Julius Caesar was a military general, politician, and dictator. He was also a skilled orator and an author, most noted for his accounts on war; De Bello Gallico and De Bello Civile. Learn more about Caesar in Chapter 6 of 2000 years of Latin Prose.
Gaius Oppius, contemporary of Julius Caesar (reign 49–44 B.C.)
Oppius took care of Julius Caesar’s affairs while he was not in Rome. He is sometimes credited to have written De Bello Alexandrino and allegedly wrote a memoir of Caesar and of the elder Scipio Africanus as well as a pamphlet about Cleopatra’s son. Nothing, save for De Bello Alexandrino, survives to this day. Learn more about De Bello Alexandrino in Chapter 7 of 2000 years of Latin Prose.
Marcus Actorius Naso, perhaps a contemporary of Julius Caesar (reign 49–44 B.C.)
Actorius Naso supposedly wrote a life of Julius Caesar, though almost nothing is known of this author.
Lucius Cornelius Balbus, contemporary of Julius Caesar (reign 49–44 B.C.) and Emperor Augustus (reign 27 B.C.-14 A.D.)
Cornelius Balbus was a wealthy politician from Gades (modern Càdiz, Spain) who took care of Caesar’s affairs together with Oppius. He became consul in 40 B.C. Balbus kept a record of his and Caesar’s lives that is now lost.
Granius Flaccus, contemporary of Julius Caesar (reign 49–44 B.C.) and Emperor Augustus (reign 27 B.C.-14 A.D.)
Flaccus was a Roman scholar and antiquarian. His work De indigitamentis containing prayer formularies was used by the Church Fathers as a source on Roman religion. Granius is also said to have written a work on sacred laws. Fragments remain of his work.
Cornelius Nepos, 100–24 B.C.
Cornelius Nepos was a Roman biographer, author, and poet, and perhaps publisher, thought to have been a friend of Cicero and Catullus. His principal work, De viribus illustribus, treated famous Roman and foreign men.
Roman Authors Of The 1st Century B.C. (99 B.C.-0)
Quintus Claudius Quadrigarius, probably lived during the 1st century B.C.
Quadrigarius was an annalist who wrote a history of Rome, from the battle of the Allia in 390 B.C. to Emperor Sulla (reign 112–78 B.C.). Fragments remain of his work.
Abronius Silo, active during the 1st century B.C.
Silo was a poet of whom almost nothing is known other than that he was a student of the famous Roman rhetorician Marcus Porcius Latro (?-4 B.C.). Two lines of hexameter survive of his work.
Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, active during the 1st century B.C.
Pompeius Trogus, also known as Pompey Trogue, was a Roman historian famous for his work called Historiae Philippicae et Totius Mundi Origines et Terrae Situs or Liber Historiarum Philippicarum in 44 books. Excerps of this work is preserved by other authors.
Lucius Afranius, beginning of the 1st century B.C.
Afranius was a playwright who wrote comedies. Little is known about his life, but we have titles of 42 of his comedies along with a few fragments preserved.
Volcatius Sedigitus, active around 100 B.C.
Volcatius Sedigitus was a Roman poet and critic who might have gotten his cognomen Sedigitus from having had six fingers on each hand. Little is known of him, but Pliny the Elder (23/24 ‑79 A.D.) wrote, in Naturalis Historia, that he was distinguished in poetry. A few fragments from Volcatius’ work De Poetis remain in Aulus Gellius’ (c. 125–180A.D.) Noctes Atticae. In these fragments, he ranked and critiqued Roman comedy authors.
Lucius Pomponius Bononiensis, flourished around 90 B.C
Pomponius Bononiensis (not to be confused with Pomponius Secundus) was an author from Bologna, Italy, who wrote, to our knowledge, about 70 works. Most famous for taking the so-called Atellan fables (a sort of masked comedy) from improvised farces into real plays written in metric form.
Quintus Novius, most likely a contemporary of Lucius Pomponius Bononiensis (fl. c. 90 B.C.)
Novius was the author of at least 43 Atellan fables (a sort of masked farce). Novius had the same ambition as Pomponius (see previous entry) of heightening the popular fables to ”real” plays.
Laevius, perhaps active around 90–80 B.C.
Laevius was a poet about whom next to nothing is known. He might be the Laevius Melissus mentioned by Suetonius (Gram. 3) though it is not certain. Laevius wrote lyrics on romantic themes in a work called Erotopaegnia. About 60 lines have been preserved.
Titus Lucretius Carus,c.99‑c.55 B.C.
Lucretius was a Roman poet and philosopher. He is known for his poem De rerum natura that conveys the ideas of Epicureanism in about 7400 dactylic hexameters.
Publius Nigidius Figulus, c.98–45 B.C.
Publius Nigidius Figulus was a Roman politician and scholar. He wrote a grammatical commentary as well as works on theology and scientific and astrological works. His works only survive as quotes by other authors.
Aulus Hirtius, c.90–43 B.C.
Aulus Hirtius was a legate of Julius Caesar, envoy to Pompey Magnus, and consul of Rome in 43 B.C. Hirtius was also a military writer and added an 8th book to Caesar’s De Bello Gallico and is many times credited to be the author of the pseudo-Caesarian work De Bello Alexandrino. Learn more about Hirtius and De Bello Alexandrino in Chapter 7 of 2000 years of Latin Prose.
Gaius Sallustius Crispus, 86–35 B.C.
Sallustius Crispus, known mostly as Sallustius or simply Sallust, was a Roman politician and historian. His main work, Historiae, comes down to us as fragments. His most famous works, Bellum Jugurthinum, about the Jugurtine war, and Bellum Catilinae, about the Catiline conspiracy, have survived in their entirety.
Cornificia, c.85–40 B.C.
Cornificia was a Roman poetess famous for writing epigrams. None of her work has survived. She was the sister of the poet and praetor Cornificius.
Quintus Cornificius, ?-42 B.C.
Cornificius was the brother of the poetess Cornificia. He was a general, an augur, a praetor, and a poet. He wrote a poem called Glaucus, which is lost to us.
Publilius Syrus,c.85 B.C -?
Publilius Syrus was a poet and author of mimes. He was initially a slave from Syria brought to Rome and granted freedom. He is most famous for his collection of sententiae – about 700 lines of verse – which is also all that we have left of his work.
Gaius Valerius Catullus, c.84‑c.54 B.C.
Catullus was a poet from Verona in northern Italy who is famous for his personal poems. Especially renowned are those that speak of his love for a certain ”Lesbia.” 116 of his poems have been preserved in an anthology.
Anser, contemporary of Marcus Antonius (83 B.C.-30 B.C.)
Anser was a poet of whom little is known. He was a friend of Marcus Antonius and supposedly wrote indelicate poems.
Gaius Memmius, ?-c. 49 B.C.
Memmius was a tribune of the plebs, a praetor, a governor, an orator, and a poet. He is most famous for being dedicated Lucretius’ work De rerum natura. Memmius himself wrote erotic poems and was a close friend of the poets Catulus and Helvius Cinna (see below). Memmius died in exile in Greece around 49 B.C. after having been condemned for illegal practices at the election for the consulship.
Gaius Licinius Macer Calvus, 82‑c.47 B.C.
Macer was an orator and a poet, as well as a friend of Catullus. We know of 21 speeches of his but only have fragments left.
Gaius Helvius Cinna, contemporary and friend, of Catullus (c.84‑c.54 B.C.) and Calvus (82‑c.47 B.C.)
Cinna was a Roman poet famous for his mythological epic poem Zmyrna. Unfortunately, the poem has not survived.
Publius Terentius Varro Atacinus, 82‑c.35 B.C.
Publius Terentius Varro Atacinus is not to be confused with the slightly older Marcus Terentius Varro also known as Varro Reatinus. Varro Atacinus was a Roman poet from southern Gaul. He is known for a poem about one of Caesar’s campaigns, Bellum sequanicum. He also wrote satires, epigrams and translated Apollonius Rhodius’ Argonautica into Latin. Only fragments remain of his works.
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, 80/70–15 B.C.
Vitruvius Pollio was a Roman author, architect and engineer specialized in the construction of war machines for sieges. He is famous for his treatise De Architectura in ten books about, among other things, architecture, natural history, and Roman building techniques. The work is extant.
Gaius Asinius Pollio, 75 B.C.-4 A.D.
Asinius Pollio was a consul, military commander, poet, historian, orator, and patron of poets such as Vergilius and Horatius. He is famous for founding the first public library in Rome and for his historical work about the civil wars. This work, though lost to us, was used as a source by later historians. Pollio also wrote tragedies and speeches.
Gaius Cassius Parmensis, c. 74–31/30 B.C.
Cassius Parmensis was a Roman politician and writer. He was also part of the assassination of Julius Caesar. He wrote tragedies, satires, elegies, and epigrams. Nothing of his has survived.
Lucius Varius Rufus, c. 74–14 B.C.
Rufus was a Roman poet and friend of Vergilius and Horatius. He wrote an epic poem called De Morte and a tragedy called Thyestes. Fragments of his works survive. He was also one of two who helped publish Vergilius’ Aeneid, Plotius Tucca being the other (see below).
Gaius Cornelius Gallus, c. 70–26 B.C.
Cornelius Gallus was a poet, orator, and prefect of Egypt. He was considered the first elegiac poet of Rome by Ovid and wrote four books of elegies. Only a few fragments survive of his poems.
Publius Vergilius Maro, 70–19 B.C.
Vergilius – known to most as Virgil or Vergil – was one of Rome’s most celebrated poets and author of one of the most famous epic poems in history: the Aeneid, a poem he himself wanted to be burned after his death as he was not yet finished. Emperor Augustus instead, thankfully, ordered the poem to be published.
Plotius Tucca, contemporary of Vergilius (70–19 B.C. )
Plotius Tucca was a poet and a friend of Vergilius and Maecenas. He was supposedly one of two who helped publish Vergilius’ Aeneid, Varius Rufus (c. 74–14 B.C.) being the other (see above). Of his own work, we know nothing.
Aemilius Macer,?-16 B.C.
Macer was a didactic poet from Verona, northern Italy, who wrote two poems: Ornithogonia about birds and Theriaca about antidotes for the poison of serpents. He might have also written a botanical work.
Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, c. 70 B.C.-8 B.C.
Maecenas is most famous for his patronage of young poets (hence the word “mecenate”) such as Vergilius, Horatius, and Propertius. Maecenas was also friend and advisor to Octavian, the future Emperor Augustus (reign 27 B.C.-14 A.D.), and an author writing both prose and poetry. A few fragments of his works remain.
Gaius Maecenas Melissus, contemporary of G. Cilnius Maecenas (c. 70 B.C‑8 B.C.)
Maecenas Melissus was a freedman of Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, hence the name. Melissus is mainly famous for inventing the so-called fabula trabeata, or “tales of the knights” a type of comedy representing the equestrian class. He also compiled jokes and might have been a grammarian, but nothing of his survives.
Gaius Valgius Rufus, contemporary of G. Cilnius Maecenas (c. 70 B.C‑8 B.C.)
Valgius Rufus was a poet, writer, consul and friend of Horatius and Maecenas. He wrote elegies and epigrams and was very highly thought of by his contemporaries. He also translated a rhetorical manual and began a treatise on medicinal plants.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus, 65–8 B.C.
Horatius – Horace to most – from Venusia in southern Italy, was a soldier and a senator, but he was mostly famous – both now and in his own time – as a lyric poet. He wrote satires, epistles, a collection of four books of lyric poems called Odes or Carmina, and Ars Poetica, a poem about the art of poetry.
Domitius Marsus, contemporary of Horatius Flaccus (65–8 B.C.)
Marsus was a poet who wrote a collection of epigrams called Cicuta, an epitaph on the death of Tibullus, elegiac poems, and an epic poem. Only fragments of his works survive.
Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus, 64 B.C.-8 A.D.
Corvinus was a Roman general, orator and poet, and patron of poets such as Tibullus and Sulpicia. He was a friend with Horace and acquainted with Ovid. Corvinus’ own works have all been lost.
Gaius Julius Hyginus, c. 64 B.C.-17 A.D.
Hyginus was a diligent author and freedman of Augustus and superintendent of the Palatine library. Hyginus wrote commentaries on Helvius Cinna and Vergilius, essays on agriculture, topographical and biographical treatises. All these are lost to us. However, we do have what might be school notes from his work on mythology and astronomy; Fabulae and De Astronomica, also known as Poeticon Astronomicon.
Titus Livius, 64/59 B.C.-17 A.D.
Livius – known to most as Livy – was an author most famous as a historian from his work Ab Urbe Condita which goes through Roman history from the beginning in 753 B.C. all the way to Livy’s own lifetime. About a fourth of the work survives. Livy also wrote rhetorical and philosophical works and dialogues; however, nothing of this has survived.
Bavius, time of Emperor Augustus (reign 27 B.C.-14 A.D)
Bavius’ name goes hand in hand with the poet Maevius (see below) as these two poets are named together in Virgil’s Eclogues. We do not know whether or not Bavius was a real or a fictional poet, but his name became synonymous with bad poetry.
Cincius, active during the reign of Emperor Augustus (27 B.C.-14 A.D.)
Cincius – not to be confused with annalist Lucius Cincius Alimentus from 200 B.C. (who wrote in Greek) – was an antiquarian writer. Nothing of his has survived though both Livy and Festus quoted him.
Titus Labienus, flourished during the reign of Emperor Augustus (27 B.C. – 14 A.D.)
Titus Labienus – not to be confused with Julius Caesar’s legate T. Labienus – was a historian and orator famous for his controversial writings. Labenius killed himself when he was found guilty of treason (through harming the state with his texts), and his works were sentenced to burn.
Maevius, or Mevius, time of Emperor Augustus (reign 27 B.C.-14 A.D)
Maevius’ name goes together with the poet Bavius (see above) as the two were named together in Virgil’s Eclogues. Maevius is also the target of Horace’s tenth Epode where Maevius is called “stinking.” Maevius, as Bavius, might have been a fictional poet.
Gaius Matius, active during the reign of Emperor Augustus (27 B.C.-14 A.D.)
Matius was a friend and assistant of Emperor Augustus and wrote a work in three volumes on gastronomy. This work is sadly lost to us.
Gaius Rabirius, probably lived during the age of Emperor Augustus (reign 27 B.C.-14 A.D.)
Gaius Rabirius, not to be confused with the senator with the same name, was a poet who is believed to be the author of a poem about the final battle between Marcus Antonius and Octavianus (Augustus) and the death of Cleopatra. Fragments of this poem have been found at Herculaneum. As a poet, Rabirius was appreciated by other Romans, such as Velleius Paterculus (c. 19 B.C.- c. 31 A.D.) and Quintilianus (c. 35‑c. 100 A.D.).
Cornelius Severus, active during the reign of Emperor Augustus (27 B.C.-14 A.D.)
Cornelius Severus was an epic poet who supposedly wrote about the Sicilian Wars and a long poem about Rome’s ancient kings. No complete work of his has survived, but some quotes are preserved in the works of other authors.
Grattius/Gratius Faliscus, 63 B.C‑14 A.D.
Grattius was a poet famous for a poem on hunting called Cynegeticon, out of which we have 541 lines of hexameter preserved in a manuscript from about 800 A.D.
Albius Tibullus, c. 55‑c. 19 B.C.
Tibullus was a poet who wrote elegies. He was part of the literary circle surrounding his patron Corvinus. His first and second books have survived history.
Sulpicia, contemporary of Tibullus (c. 55‑c. 19 B.C.) and Corvinus (64 B.C.-8 A.D.)
Sulpicia was perhaps the niece of Messalla Corvinus (64 B.C.-8 A.D.) and is believed to have written six elegiac poems making her one of few female authors in Roman history. The poems have been argued to have been written by Tibullus.
Marcus Verrius Flaccus, c. 55 B.C.-20 A.D.
Flaccus was a Roman grammarian and philologist who tutored the grandsons of Emperor Augustus. He is most famous for his work De verborum significatu, but he also wrote an encyclopedic work and a work on Roman ritual. Only later summaries remain of his works.
Seneca Maior, c. 55. B.C.-39 A.D.
Seneca Maior was born Lucius Annaeus Seneca and is also known as Seneca the Elder or Seneca the Rhetorician. Seneca Maior was a rhetorician and writer from Córdoba, Spain. He wrote down his experiences with rhetoric at the request of his sons in a work called Oratorum et rhetorum sententiae, divisiones, colores. Much of it survives to this day. Seneca also wrote a history of Rome, although this work is lost to us.
Fenestella, c. 52 B.C.-c. 19 A.D.?
Fenestella was a Roman historian of whose work, Annales, only fragments remain.
Sextus Propertius, c.50/45-after 15 B.C.
Propertius was an elegiac poet from Assisi. He was a friend of Gallus and Vergil and famous for his four books of elegies, mainly focusing on his love for a woman he calls ”Cynthia.”
Publius Ovidius Naso, 43 B.C.-17/18 A.D.
Ovidius – known to most English speakers as Ovid – was a Roman poet. He was very popular in his own time but was mysteriously sent into exile by Emperor Augustus due to what he himself called carmen et error – “a poem and a mistake.” He is today most famous for his epic Metamorphoses and his elegiac Ars Amatoria.
Albinovanus Pedo, contemporary of Ovidius (43 B.C.-17/18 A.D.)
Albinovanus Pedo wrote an epic poem about the deeds of Germanicus, Nero’s son, out of which a fragment remains. He also wrote epigrams, though none of these survive.
A. Cornelius Celsus, c. 25 B.C.-c. 50 A.D.
Celsus was the author of an encyclopedia. The only remaining part is De Medicina, a section about everything medicinal from the history of medicine to diet, surgery, and pharmacy.
Clutorius Priscus, c. 20 B.C.-21 A.D.
Priscus was a poet who wrote a panegyric, a sort of eulogy, for Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius. Priscus died in 21 A.D. due to the second panegyric he wrote. This one was for the Emperor’s son Drusus Julius Caesar. However, Priscus wrote it when Drusus was ill – not dead as Germanicus had been. Drusus survived his illness, and the existence of the poem was regarded with harsh eyes. Priscus was tried for a capital offense by the Senate and was sentenced to death.
Marcus Velleius Paterculus, c.19 B.C.-31 A.D.
Velleius Paterculus was a historian, military tribune, and quaestor of Rome. He is famous for his Historiae about the period from the end of the Trojan War to the death of Augustus’ wife Livia Druscilla in 29 A.D.
Gaius Julius Phaedrus, c. 15 B.C.-54 A.D.
Phaedrus was a Roman fabulist famous for turning Aesop’s Greek fables into Latin iambic metre.
Quintus Asconius Pedianus, c. 9 B.C.-c. 76 A.D.
Asconius Pedianus was a Roman historian. He wrote commentaries of Cicero’s published and unpublished speeches, of various historical writer’s works, and much more for his sons. Parts of five of the commentaries for Cicero’s speeches remain.
Seneca Minor, c. 4 B.C.-65 A.D.
Seneca Minor or Lucius Annaeus Seneca, known as Seneca the Younger or simply Seneca, born in Córdoba, Spain, was the son of Seneca Maior. He was an author and philosopher whose most important and popular work is his collection of letters on morals and ethics.
Lucilius Junior, contemporary of Seneca Minor (c. 4 B.C.-65 A.D.)
Lucilius Junior was a poet, a procurator of Sicily, and a friend of Seneca Minor whose Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium are addressed to Lucilius. Lucilius might have been the author of a poem named Aetna, though this has been disputed.
Marcus Antistius Labeo, 1st century B.C.-10/11 A.D.
Labeo was a Roman jurist and praetor who wrote works about the law and a collection of legal prepositions.
Aulus Cremutius Cordus, ?-25 A.D.
Cremutius Cordus was a historian whose works were ordered by the Senate to be burned after he had been accused of treason. Cordius himself was forced to suicide. Cordius’ daughter, Marcia, saved his works so that they could be re-published later on. Today we have a few fragments about the civil war and the reign of Augustus left.
Titus Cassius Severus, 1st century B.C.-32 A.D.
Severus was a teacher of rhetoric. He was exiled from Rome for writings in which he attacked Rome’s elite and the abuse of the government. His works were banned after his death, then republished under Emperor Caligula. Fragments survive of his court speeches.
Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus, ?-39 A.D.
Gaetulicus was a Roman general, senator, and consul who was also a writer and perhaps a poet. He wrote memoirs that both Suetonius (69–122 A.D.) and Tacitus (c. 55–120 A.D) used as a source for their own works. Gaetulicus also wrote erotic verse. He was executed during the reign of Emperor Caligula.
Servilius Nonianus, ?-59 A.D.
Nonianus was a Roman senator, consul, and historian whose history of Rome was considered a great reference work by later Roman historians such as Tacitus (c. 56-c120 A.D.) and Quintilianus (c. 35‑c.100 A.D.). The work is now lost.
Alphius Avitus, lived perhaps during the reigns of Emperors Augustus (27 B.C. – 14 A.D.) and Tiberius (14–37 A.D.)
Alphius Avitus was a Roman poet that we know very little about, save for that he wrote a work called “illustrious Men”. Only a few fragments remain.
Roman Authors Of The 1st Century A.D. (1–99 A.D.)
Aufidius Bassus, lived during the reign of Emperor Tiberius (14–37 A.D.)
To our knowledge, Bassus was a historian who wrote two historical works; Bellum Germaniucum and a history spanning, probably, from the civil wars to the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 B.C. Fragments remain.
Valerius Maximus, lived during the reign of Emperor Tiberius (14–37 A.D.)
Valerius Maximus was a Roman writer famous for his work about memorable deeds, sayings, and historical anecdotes.
Aelius Saturninus, contemporary with Emperor Tiberius (reign 14–37 A.D.)
Aelius Saturninus was a Roman poet famous for being found guilty by the senate for having recited some less proper poems about Emperor Tiberius and sentenced to death by being thrown off the Tarpeian Rock on the Capitol.
Quintus Curtius Rufus might have lived during the reign of Emperor Claudius (reign 41–54 A.D.)
Curtius Rufus was a Roman historian that we know very little about. He wrote the Histories of Alexander the Great.
Marcus Cluvius Rufus, lived during the reigns of Emperors Caligula (37–41 A.D.), Claudius (41–54 A.D.) and Nero (54–68 A.D)
Cluvius Rufus was a Roman consul, senator, governor of Hispania, and historian whose lost work related events during his own lifetime and was a great source for Tacitus’ and Suetonius’ works.
Fabius Rusticus, contemporary of Emperors Claudius (reign 41–54 A.D.) and Nero ( reign 54–68 A.D)
Rusticus was a historian who related events during his own lifetime, especially events during Nero. Little else is known about his works as nothing remains but quotes found in Tacitus’ Annals.
Gaius Licinius Mucianus, lived during the reigns of Emperors Claudius (41–54 A.D.), Nero (54–68 A.D), Galba (68–69 A.D.), and Vespasianus (69–79 A.D.)
Mucianus was a Roman general, consul, governor, and writer who wrote a work about the natural history and geography of the East, as well as a collection of speeches and letters from the republican era.
Scribonius Largus, c. 1‑c. 50 A.D.
Latgus was the physician at Emperor Claudius’ (reign 41–54 A.D) court. He was also the author of a work called De compositione medicamentorum liber which is a long list of 271 medical prescriptions.
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella, 4‑c.70 A.D.
Columella, who was probably born in Cádiz, Spain, was a military man and tribune in Syria turned farmer. He wrote about agriculture and trees in his De Re Rustica (12 volumes) and De arboribus.
Gaius Valerius Flaccus, ?- c. 90 A.D.
Valerius Flaccus was a poet who wrote an epic poem called Argonautica in dactylic hexameter recounting Jason’s quest for the Golden fleece. The text was lost until 1411, when about half of it was re-discovered.
Saleius Bassus, contemporary of Gaius Valerius Flaccus (?-c. 90 A.D.)
Bassus was an epic poet whose style was celebrated by other Romans, such as Quintilianus and Tacitus. The latter referred to him as the “ideal poet” in his Dialogus. None of Bassus’ works has survived history.
Marcus Valerius Probus or Marcus Valerius Probus Berytius, c. 20/30–105 A.D.
Valerius Probus – also known as Probus the Berytian – was a grammarian who wrote criticisms on works by Horatius, Lucretius, Terentius, Vergilius, and Persius. He also wrote a treatise called De notis that survives to this day.
Plinius Maior or Gaius Plinius Secundus, c. 23/24–79 A.D.
Plinius Maior, more commonly known as Pliny the Elder, was an author, a natural philosopher, and a commander of the fleet. He is most famous for his Naturalis Historia, a sort of encyclopedia divided into 37 books into 10 volumes. The work, covering everything from mining to mathematics, agriculture to astronomy, painting, and physiology is the largest Roman work to survive today. Pliny the Elder died on a rescue mission as Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 A.D.
Publius Calvisius Sabinus Pomponius Secundus, contemporary of Plinius Maior (c. 23/24–79 A.D)
Pomponius Secundus was a poet, a consul, and a governor of Germania Superior. He wrote a tragedy called Aeneas, of which a few lines still survive to this day.
Gaius Caesius Bassus, ?-79 A.D.
Caesius Bassus, not to be confused with Saleius Bassus (see above), was a poet highly thought of by his contemporaries. He wrote lyric poetry as well as a treatise called De Metris. Parts of the treatise survive. Caesius Bassus probably died when Mount Vesuvius erupted.
Tiberius Catius Asconius Silius Italicus, c. 23/35- c. 101/103 A.D.
Silius Italicus was a Roman consul and orator. He is famous for his epos Punica in 17 books about the Second Punic War, which is the longest surviving poem in Latin.
Gaius Petronius Arbiter, c. 27–66 A.D.
Petronius was a consul, governor, and advisor (or rather “a judge of elegance”) to Emperor Nero (reign 54–68 A.D). He is most famous for being the author of one of few Latin novels from antiquity: Satyricon. The Satyricon does not survive in its entirety, but large sections of it do making it the second most fully preserved Roman novel after Apuleius’ The Golden Ass. Petronius ended his own life after having been accused of treason. Learn more by watching this video in Latin about Petronius.
Aulus Persius Flaccus, 34–62 A.D.
Persius Flaccus, commonly referred to as Persius, was a poet and satirist from Volterra, Italy. He is famous for his collection of Satires that were published posthumously.
Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, c. 35‑c.96/100 A.D.
Quintilianus, more commonly known as Quintilian, was a rhetorician from Calahorra, Spain. Quintilian opened a public school of rhetoric and could count Pliny the Younger as one of his students. He also became a consul and wrote a textbook on rhetoric, Institutio Oratoria.
Marcus Valerius Martialis , c. 38/41–102/104 A.D.
Martialis, known as Martial to English speakers, was a poet from Augusta Bilbilis, modern Calatayud, Spain. He is famous for his Epigrams – 12 books with short satirical poems.
Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, 39–65 A.D.
Lucanus, known as Lucan, was a Roman poet from Corduba who is famous for his epic poem Pharsalia. He was a friend of Emperor Nero (reign 54–68 A.D), but the friendship turned sour, and Lucan joined the conspiracy of Piso against Nero and was, as the conspiracy was discovered, forced to commit suicide.
Sextus Julius Frontinus, c. 40–103 A.D.
Frontinus was a Roman civil engineer, general, consul, and author. He wrote a technical treatise, or rather a report, De aquaeductu or De aquis urbis Romae, about the aqueducts of Rome. The report consists of two books and is extant. Frontinus’ also wrote a work on military tactics called Strategemata that is now lost to us.
Publius Papinius Statius, 45–96 A.D.
Statius was a poet from Naples, known for his surviving epic poem Thebaid in 12 books as well as the Silvae and the unfinished book on the life of Achilles, Achilleid.
Decimus Junius Juvenalis, c. 55 A.D‑2nd century.
Juvenalis, known as Juvenal, was a poet and satirist from Aquino, who was the author of the famous collection of satirical poems called Satires. Juvenal was exiled from Rome for insulting an actor with a lot of influence higher up in the hierarchy.
Cornelius Tacitus, c. 55/56–120 A.D.
Tacitus was a Roman consul and governor, author, and one of antiquity’s most famous historians. His major works are his Annales, also known as Ab excessu divi Augusti, his De origine et situ Germanorum, and Historiae. He also wrote a dialogue about eloquence and a biography of his father-in-law, the famous general Agricola (40–93 A.D.).
Curiatius Maternus, contemporary of Tacitus (c. 55–120 A.D.)
Maternus was a Roman playwright and author of tragedies such as Domitius, Medea and Cato.
Plinius Minor or Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, 61/62–113 A.D.
Plinius Minor, more commonly known as Pliny the Younger, was the nephew of Plinius Maior. He held many Roman offices such as consul, augur, and imperial governor, but is mostly famous for his writing – speeches, poems, etc., but especially for his letters, of which 247 survive.
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, c. 69-after 122 A.D.
Suetonius Tranquillus, mostly known as simply Suetonius, was a Roman writer and biographer, and a close friend of Pliny the Younger. He served as a secretary under Emperors Trajanus (reign 98–117 A.D.) and Hadrianus (reign 117–138 A.D.). He is most famous for his De vita Caesarum or The life of the Caesars, a biography of the Roman Empire’s first leaders. Suetonius wrote several other works – a few are extant – such as De Viris Illustribus. Most of his works though are unfortunately lost.
Florus, c. 74–130 A.D.
Florus was a historian, a poet, and a rhetorician. However, there are three different names attached to the name Florus: Lucius Annaeus Florus, Julius Florus, and Publius Annius Florus. These might have been three different men, but they might also have been one and the same.
Publius Annius Florus wrote a work called Virgilius orator an poeta, a dialogue about whether Virgil was an orator or a poet. The work itself is lost, but the introduction to it remains. In it we are told the name of the author as Publius Annius Florus and that he was born in Africa around 74 A.D., came to Rome, left Rome for travels, then became a teacher of rhetoric in Tarraco (modern Tarragona, Spain) only to return again to Rome. We are also told that he was a friend of Emperor Hadrianus (117–138 A.D.) who was a fan of his poems. He died in 130 A.D.
The poetic works De quatilate vitae (26 tetrameters remain) and De rosis (5 hexameters remain) are attributed to Publius Annius Florus.
Lucius Annaeus Florus was the author of the extant epitome of Roman history called Epitome de T. Livio Bellorum omnium annorum DCC Libri duo that covered the foundation of Rome to the closing of the temple of Janus in 25 B.C. in two books. In the manuscripts of this epitome, the author is named either Julius Florus, Lucius Anneus Florus or Annaeus Florus. From similarities in style, the historian Julius Florus/Lucius Annaeus Florus has been identified as the poet and rhetorician Publius Annius Florus.
Sulpicia, lived during the reign of Emperor Domitianus (reign 81–96 AD)
Sulpicia was a Roman poetess writing erotic and satirical poetry, known mostly through Martialis. A 70 line hexameter poem and two lines of iambic trimeter attributed to Sulpicia survives. However, the hexameter poem is now believed to be a later imitation of Sulpicia. She is not to be confused with Sulpicia the elegiac poetess contemporary with Tibullus.
Hyginus Gromaticus, active during the reign of Emperor Trajanus (reign 98–117 A.D.)
Hyginus Gromaticus wrote about land surveying and boundaries in his work De limitibus constituendis. Fragments remain. A work on Roman camp fortifications was previously attributed to Gromaticus, but is now believed to be of a later date.
Titus Annianus, contemporary of Emperors Trajanus (reign 98–117 A.D.) and Hadrianus (reign 117–138 A.D.)
Annianus was a poet known to us mainly through Aulus Gellius’ (c. 125/128–180 A.D.) Attic Nights. A few fragments remain of his work.
Roman Authors Of The 2nd Century A.D. (100–199 A.D.)
Aemilius Asper, lived perhaps during the 2nd century A.D.
Aemilius Asper was a grammarian who wrote commentaries on the works of Terentius, Sallustius, and Vergilius. Fragments remain from his commentaries on Vergilius.
Marcus Junianus Justinus Frontinus, perhaps 2nd century A.D.
Justinus Frontinus, also known simply as Justin, was a Roman author who wrote an epitome, i.e. a sort of summary, of Pompeius Trogus’ (1st cent. B.C.) Liber Historiarum Philippicarum.
Flavius Caper, lived during the 2nd century A.D.
Caper was a Roman grammarian who wrote two now lost works: De Lingua Latina and De Dubiis Generibus. There are two short treatises written under the name of Caper that might be excerpts from these works.
Granius Licinianus, perhaps contemporary of Emperor Hadrianus (reign 117–138 A.D.)
Granius Licinianus was a Roman author who wrote a 36 book epitome of Roman history as well as an encyclopedic work called Cenae Suae. A few fragments remain of the epitome’s book 26, 28, 33, 35, and 36 as a palimpsest.
Calpurnius Flaccus, contemporary of Emperor Hadrianus (reign 117–138 A.D.)
Flaccus was a Roman rhetorician who wrote 51 declamations or controversiae, i.e. fictitious model court speeches used in education. The declamations are extant.
Marcus Cornelius Fronto, c. 100‑c.170 A.D.
Fronto was a lawyer, orator, and rhetorician originally from Cirta, the Numidian capital (modern Constantine, Algeria), but was educated in Rome. He was the tutor of the future Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus and left letters from his correspondence with them for history to read.
Aulus Gellius, c. 125/128–180 A.D.
Aulus Gellius was a Roman grammarian and author whose only preserved work, Noctes Atticae, is a collection of things he deemed valuable or interesting. It includes notes on grammar, history, poetry, philosophy, and more, and it preserves many fragments from earlier Roman authors whose works have otherwise been lost. Of Aulus Gellius’ life, we know very little only that he was probably brought up in Rome and lived in Athens for a period in his life.
Lucius Apuleius Madaurensis, c. 124‑c.190? A.D.
Apuleius, from Madauros, (modern M’Daourouch, Algeria), was a writer of speeches, lectures, treatises, and poetry. He is most famous for his novel Metamorphoses or the Golden ass about a certain Lucius who is turned into a donkey. This work is the only Latin novel to have survived history in its entirety.
Quintus Serenus Sammonicus, ?-212 A.D.
Serenus Sammonicus was a Roman physician and author. He is famous for his medical poem in 1115 hexameters that survives to this day called Liber Medicialis or De Medicina praecepta saluberrima containing remedies and magic incantations (such as the famous ”abracadabra”). Sammonicus also authored a work called Res reconditae that remains fragmented as quotations with other authors.
Quintus Septimus Florens Tertullianus, 150/170–220/240 A.D.
Tertullianus, commonly known in English as Tertullian, was an early Christian author and theologian. He was the first Christian author to write extensive works in Latin and is most famous for his apologetic work, Apologeticus.
Hosidius Geta, contemporary of Tertullianus (150/170–220/240 A.D.)
Hosidius Geta – not to be confused with the Roman senator Gnaeus Hosidius Geta – was a Roman playwright famous for his tragedy Medea constructed out of lines and half-lines from Vergilius’ works.
Lucius Marius Maximus Perpetuus Aurelianus, c.160‑c.230 A.D.
Lucius Marius Maximus Perpetuus Aurelianus, also known as simply Marius Maximus, was a Roman biographer who wrote a continuation of Suetonius’ De Vita Caesarum. The work is lost but supposedly covered the Emperors from Nerva (reign 30–98 A.D) to Elagabalus/ Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (reign 218–222 A.D).
Vibia Perpetua, c. 181/2–203 A.D.
Vibia Perpetua was a noblewoman from Carthage who suffered martyrdom at the games held in celebration of Emperor Septimus Severus’ (reign 193–211 A.D.) birthday in 203 A.D. During her imprisonment, she kept a journal, known as Passio sanctarum Perpetuae et Felicitatis, which was completed posthumously by an editor and published.
Sextus Pompeius Festus, flourished late 2nd century A.D.
Sextus Pompeius Festus, commonly referred to as Festus, was a grammarian who wrote a summary, an epitome, of Marcus Verrius Flaccus’ (55 B.C.-20 A.D.) enormous work De Verborum Significatione, with his own additions. One manuscript, an 11th-century copy, survives but in bad shape. Festus also wrote a work called Priscorum verborum cum exemplis, which is sadly lost.
Marcus Minucius Felix, late 2nd-early 3rd
Minucius Felix was perhaps the author of the work Octavius – a dialogue written as a debate between a Christian and a Pagan.
Pomponius Porphyrion, perhaps active during the 2nd century or early 3rd century A.D.
Pomponius was a Roman grammarian who wrote rhetorical and grammatical commentaries on Horatius. His work has survived through copies.
Roman Authors Of The 3rd Century A.D. (200–299 A.D.)
Helenius Acron, probably lived during the 3rd century A.D.
Helenius Acron was a Roman grammarian who wrote commentaries on Terentius, Horatius, and perhaps Persius. Only fragments survive.
Aquila Romanus, perhaps active during the 3rd century A.D.
Aquila Romanus was a grammarian who wrote the rhetorical treatise De figuris sententiarum et elocutionis.
Censorinus, lived during the 3rd century A.D.
Censorinus was a Roman grammarian and author most famous for his surviving treatise De Die Natali, written as a birthday gift to his patron Quintus Caerellius. He also wrote a work called De Accentibus; this however is lost to us.
Cornelius Labeo, might have lived during the 3rd century A.D.
Labeo was a theologian who wrote about Roman-Etruscan religion. Only fragments survive.
Gaius Julius Solinus, active during the early-mid 3rd century A.D.
Solinus was a Roman grammarian and author of Collectanea rerum memorabilium, also known as De mirabilibus mundi or Polyhistor that used Plinius’ Historiae Naturalis and Pomponius Mela’s De situ orbis as a foundation. The work is a collection of curiosities.
Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus, c. 200–258 A.D.
Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus, known simply as Cyprianus, Cyprian or St. Cyprian, was a Church Father, bishop of Carthage, saint, and Christian writer from North Africa. Cyprianus wrote several Christian works such as Ad Donatum, Testimonia ad Quirinum, De Lapsis, and his perhaps most famous work, the treatise De Ecclesiae Catholicae Unitate.
Pontius of Carthage, contemporary with Saint Cyprian (c. 200–258 A.D.)
Pontius of Carthage, also known as Pontius the Deacon, was a deacon serving under the bishop of Carthage, i.e. Cyprianus/Saint Cyprian. After Cyprianus’ martyrdom, he wrote Vita Cypriani – Life of Cyprianus.
Novatian, c. 200–258 A.D.
Novatian, or Novatus, was a theologian and antipope (i.e. someone who attempts the position of Pope and leader of the Catholic church despite there already being a lawful pope) whose most important work is called De trinitate, which is extant. He also wrote De cibis Judaicis about food and prohibitions of the Old testament, De spectaculis about public games, and De bono pudcitiae about chastity.
Commodianus, flourished c.250 A.D
Commodianus, in English, referred to as Commodian, was a Christian poet and author of two poetic works written in hexameter that still survive to this day; Instructiones and Carmen apologeticum.
Lucius Caelius Firmianus Lactantius, c.250‑c.325 A.D.
Lactantius was a Church Father and Christian writer known for his Ciceronian style. His most important work, Diviniae Institutiones, is the first systematic presentation of Christian belief and thought.
Acholius, contemporary of Emperor Valerianus (reign 253–260 A.D.)
Acholius was a Roman historian and biographer working under Emperor Valerianus. He supposedly wrote a work called Acta in at least 9 books. He also, according to Historia Augusta, wrote the life of Emperor Severus Alexander (reign 222–235 A.D.). Nothing of his remains.
Marcus Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus, active in the 280’s A.D.
Nemesianus was a Roman poet popular at the court of Emperor Carus (reign 282–283 A.D.) who wrote poems on fishing, aquatics, bird catching, and hunting. Only fragments remain from the two latter works. He also wrote four eclogues that were previously thought to have been written by the bucolic poet Titus Calpurnius Siculus.
Victorinus Petavionensis, ?-304/304 A.D.
Victorinus Petavionensis, more commonly known as Saint Victorinus of Pettau, was an early Christian writer and the bishop of Poetovio (modern Ptju, Slovenia). Saint Victrorinus wrote commentaries on several parts of the Bible, though only his commentary on the Apocalypse has survived. He also wrote a short work called De fabrica mundi that is also extant.
Arnobius Afer ? — 330 A.D.
Arnobius Afer, also known as Arnobius of Sicca or Arnobius the Elder, was an early Christian apologist and a rhetorician. Afer wrote an apologetic work in seven books called Adversus nationes or Adversus Gentes. The work has come down to us through a 9th-century manuscript.
Marius Plotius Sacerdos, active during the end of the 3rd century A.D.
Plotius Sacerdos was a Roman grammarian famous for his Ars Grammatica in three books.
Apicius, perhaps late 3rd century A.D.
Apicius is the name commonly used when referring to the author of the Roman cookbook De Re Coquinaria. However, who actually wrote the cookbook is not known. The reason the name Apicius is used is because one of the two remaining manuscripts is headed with the words API CAE. Some of the recipes are also attributed to one Apicius. The book might be dedicated to Apicius, not written by him. There have also been several Apicii in Roman times, and who the right Apicius is not known. Some dishes in the cookbook are named after Roman celebrities, placing the book’s creation perhaps in the late 3rd century. It might be, though, that these recipes have been added to an older cookbook. We simply do not know.
Roman Authors Of The 4th Century A.D. (300–399 A.D.)
Aemilius Magnus Arborius, contemporary of Constantine the Great (reign 306–337 A.D.)
Arborius was a poet and professor of rhetoric in Tolosa, Gaul (modern Toulouse, France). He is famous for his poem in elegiac verse called Ad Nympham nimis cultam and for being the uncle of the poet Ausonius (see further down in the list).
Gaius Vettius Aquilinus Juvencus, active during the reign of Constantine the Great (reign 306–337 A.D.)
Juvencus was a priest and a poet from Spain famous for his poem Evangeliorum libri, a history of Christ written in dactylic hexameter. What we know about Juvencus comes solely from St Jerome’s work De Viris Illustribus in which we are also told that Juvencus wrote a second poem, Sacramentorum ordinem. This is now lost.
Publilius Optatianus Porfirius, contemporary of Constantine the Great (reign 306–337 A.D.)
Optatianus was a poet famous for writing a panegyric, i.e. a public speech or verse high praise of someone (or something), to Emperor Constantine the Great. Twenty-eight poems of his survive to this day.
Julius Firmicus Maternus Junior, contemporary of Constantine the Great (reign 306–337 A.D.) and Constantinus II (reign 337–361 A.D.)
Firmicus was a writer, an advocate, an astrologer, and an apologist from Sicily. He wrote a work about the error of profane religions, De errore profanarum religionum, that is still extant. Firmicus is most famous for being the author of Matheseos libri octo – eight books of astrology – which is the most extensive text of Roman astrology that has survived history. This work led to the naming of a lunar crater after him.
Gaius Marius Victorinus, contemporary of Constantinus II (reign 324–337)
Gaius Marius Victorinus, also known as Victorinus Afer, was a grammarian, philosopher, and rhetorician who wrote works on grammar, rhetoric, and theology. He also translated Platonist authors as well as a few works of Aristotle’s from Greek to Latin.
Pope Damasus I, 305–384 A.D.
Pope Damasus, bishop of Rome from 366 to 384 A.D., was born in Rome and famous for encouraging Saint Jerome (see further down the list) in the translating of the Bible. He also wrote letters as well as Latin verse. Sixty-seven of his epigraphic poems are extant.
Faltonia Betitia Proba, c. 306/315‑c.353/366
Proba was a Roman Christian poet who came from an aristocratic family – her father was a consul. She was born a pagan but converted to Christianity. Two works have been attributed to Proba; the now lost poem Constantini bellum adversus Magnentium about the war between Emperor Constantinus II and Magnentius; the still extant cento about the life of Jesus called Cento Vergilianus de laudibus Christi. A “cento” is a poem composed of verses or passages taken from other authors, in Proba’s case Vergilius.
Decimus Magnus Ausonius, c. 310–395 A.D.
Ausonius was a Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric from modern Bordeaux, France. He was the tutor of future Emperor Gratian and later consul. Ausonius is most famous for his poems Mosella and Ephemeris.
Aurelius Victor, c. 320‑c. 390 A.D.
Aurelius Victor was a governor, a prefect, and a historian famous for his work De Caesaribus dealing with Emperors from Augustus to Constantinus II. Three other historical works have been ascribed to him; Origo Gentis Romanae, De Viris Illustribus Romae, Epitome de Caesaribus. The four works are usually published together under the name Historia Romana. They are still extant.
Ammianus Marcellinus, c. 330‑c. 395 A.D.
Ammianus was a Greek/Roman soldier under Constantinus II and Julianus. He is famous for writing the work Res Gestae, a history of Rome from Nerva in 96 A.D to the Battle of Adrianople in 378 A.D. Only the part about the years 353–378 A.D. survive.
Aurelius Ambrosius, c. 340–397 A.D.
Aurelius Ambrosius, known in English as Ambrose, was the Archbishop of Milan and author of a wide variety of Christian writings such as ethical works, commentaries on the Old Testament, treatises on faith, the Holy Ghost, the Sacrament of the Incarnation of the Lord, the Mysteries, etc. He also wrote letters, sermons (only fragments remain of these), and a collection of hymns.
Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, c. 345–402 A.D.
Symmachus was a Roman consul, orator, and letter writer. He is viewed as one of the most important and most skillful Roman orators. Symmachus was pagan in a time when Rome turned all the more Christian. Many of his letters survive, a collection of official dispatches as well as fragments of his orations.
Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus, c. 347–420 A.D.
Hieronymus, also known as Saint Jerome, was a priest, a theologian, a secretary to Pope Damasus I, and a historian most famous for translating the Bible into Latin (known as the Vulgate). Jerome also wrote commentaries on the gospels, hagiographic works, letters, a work called De viris illustribus containing notes on 135 Christian authors, and more.
Aurelius Prudentius Clemens, 348-after 405 A.D.
Prudentius was a Christian poet, jurist, and governor from northern Spain. He is most famous for his Psychomachia, an allegorical poem about the struggles of faith. Prudentius also wrote lyric poetry and hymns – some of which are still in use today, at least in their reworked, translated, forms.
Augustinus, 354–430 A.D.
Augustinus, in English commonly known as Saint Augustine of Hippo, or simply Augustine, was a Christian theologian, bishop, and Neoplatonic philosopher from modern-day Algeria. He is most famous for his works De Civitate Dei contra paganos (The City of God) and Confessiones.
Flavius Eutropius, flourished c. 360 A.D.
Eutropius was a historian and the imperial secretary in Constantinople. He wrote a summary of Roman history spanning from the foundation of Rome to the accession of Emperor Valens (reign 364–375 A.D.) called Breviarium Historiae Romanae.
Sulpicius Alexander, flourished perhaps during the late 4th century
Sulpicius Alexander was a historian of Germanic tribes. His work, Historia, is lost but was quoted and excerpted by Gregory of Tours (c. 538–594 A.D.).
Severus Sanctus Endelechius, probably active during the end of the 4th cent.
Endelechius was a rhetorician and poet famous for his poem on the death of cattle called De Mortibus Bovum in 33 strophes that is still extant.
Roman Authors Of Unknown Date
Cruquianus, as earliest a contemporary of Horatius (65–8 B.C.) but no more than that is certain.
Cruquianus, also known as Commentator Cruquianus, was an anonymous writer who wrote comments on Horatius. His real name is not known.
Fabius Dorsennus/Dossennus, before 23/24–79 A.D.
Dorsennus, or Dossennus, was a writer of Atellan farces, i.e. a certain kind of masked comedy. Little is known about him save that he wrote a play called Acharistio and that he predates Plinius Maior (c. 23/24–79 A.D.). Plinius also mentioned him in his Historiae Naturalis, 14.15. Dorsennus is also mentioned by Horatius (65–8 B.C.), though it has been debated whether or not it is actually Fabius Dorsennus that Horatius refers to or to the stock character called Dossennus used in Atellan farces.
(You can read more about this, if you’re curious, in The Satires and Epistles of Horace: With Notes and Excursus, by Thomas Keightley, p. 327)
Terentianus Maurus, lived sometime between 150 and 350 A.D.?
Terentianus was a grammarian from North Africa who wrote a treatise called De litteris, syllabis, pedibus et metris on letters, syllables, feet, and meters. The work was rediscovered in 1493 and is incomplete although almost 3000 verses remain, most of them in hexameter.
Titus Calpurnius Siculus, it has been argued that Titus Calpurnius lived after Virgil (70–19 B.C.), during the reign of Nero (54–68 A.D.), the reign of Severus (193–211 A.D.), and the reign of Carus (282–283 A.D).
Titus Calpurnius was a Roman poet who wrote pastoral poems. Eleven eclogues survive under his name, though four of those are now usually attributed to a poet called Nemesianus (see above, list of 3rd century A.D.).