Pugio Bruti Resources

Free resources for the book Pugio Bru­ti – A Crime Sto­ry in Easy Latin. 

Expres­sions | Illus­tra­tions | East­er eggs | Glossary

For even more resources (Latin video lessons, exer­cis­es, com­men­tary) check out the Pugio Bru­ti Online Course.


More resources

Fur­ther down on this page you’ll find resources for the Latin book Pugio Bru­ti – A Crime Sto­ry in Easy Latin. It is a crime sto­ry with a lim­it­ed vocab­u­lary (350 words) set in ancient Rome. To accom­pa­ny the book there is an audio­book and an exten­sive online video course.

Discover the Pugio Bruti world


Inter­nal­ize the lan­guage: few words and high repetition.

Writ­ten in a clas­si­cal style.

Read with­out a dic­tio­nary: Full Latin-Eng­lish vocabulary.


Prac­tice instant understanding.

Learn the restored clas­si­cal pronunciation.

Lis­ten to Latin any­where and every­where on the go.

Online course

Dis­cov­er the book with video lessons in Latin.

Prac­tice your under­stand­ing with quizzes.

Mas­ter the book with dialogues.

How to study Pugio Bruti

Do you want some sug­ges­tions on how to study Pugio Bru­ti — A Crime Sto­ry in Easy Latin?

Click below to get a step-by-step approach to using Pugio Bru­ti while learn­ing Latin.


Below you will find a list of use­ful Latin expres­sions and words used in Pugio Bru­ti – A Crime Sto­ry in Easy Latin. Every expres­sion is trans­lat­ed into Eng­lish. Remem­ber how­ev­er when using the expres­sions in Latin to always con­sid­er the context.

If you have the Pugio Bru­ti course, remem­ber to con­sult the com­men­tary on each chap­ter, There is much detailed infor­ma­tion expres­sions and con­struc­tions there.

Latin expressions


Abeat in malam rem! To hell with him!

Accede huc. Come here.

Ain’ tu? Really?


Bene nar­ras. I’m glad to hear that! Good news!


Con­ver­sus abi­it. He turned around and walked away.


Di boni! Good Lord(s)!

Domi. At home

Dor­mi­tum iit. He/she went to bed. 


Ei in mentem ven­it… It occurred to him that…

Ei non est tem­pus. He does­n’t have time.

Eodem tem­pore quoAt the same time as…

Est quod tibi nar­rem. I have some­thing to tell you.

Expec­tavit dum Ter­en­tia abiret. He/She wait­ed for Ter­en­tia to go away. 


Foras egres­sus est. He stepped outside.

Foris expec­tavit. He wait­ed outside.

Foris. Out­side.


Heus tu! Hey you!

Humi iacet. He/she is lying on the ground.


Ian­ua foras fere­bat. The door led outside.

Illo ipso die. On that very day.

Illud solum vidi…the only thing I saw was…

In mentem ven­it pugio­n­is. The dag­ger came to mind. 


Lin­eae ex mac­u­la cur­runt. The lines run/extend out from the stain. 


Male nar­ras! I’m sor­ry to hear that. That is bad news!

Mediā viā. In the mid­dle of the street.

Mitte pugionem. Let go of the dagger.

Mul­ti ader­ant homines. There was a lot of peo­ple there. 

Mul­to post. Much later.


Nemo est qui id nes­ci­at. There is none who doesn’t know that. (Every­one knows that.)

Nesciebant quid fac­er­ent. They didn’t know what to do.

Nihil mihi est quod tibi dem. I have noth­ing to give you.

Non longe a caupona aber­at. He wasn’t far from the tavern.

Numquid vis? Any­thing else?

Nunc ipsum. Right now. 


Opus est mihi plaus­tro. I need the cart.


Parvis erat manibus. He had small hands.

Paulo ante. A lit­tle earlier.

Per hunc pugionem iuro. I swear by this dagger.

Per ocu­los iuro. I swear by (my) eyes.

Post longum tem­pus: after a long time

Prox­imus ado­les­cen­ti sedet. He is sit­ting next to the young man. 


Qua est facie? What does he look like?

Qui sci­am? How am I sup­posed to know?

Qui scis? How do you know?

Quid ad te? What’s it to you?

Quid hoc rei est? What is this? (What’s going on?)

Quid malum non respon­des? Why the hell aren’t you answering?

Quid nar­ras? What are you talk­ing about?

Quid nunc faci­am? What am I sup­posed to do now?

Quid, malum, nar­ras? What the hell are you saying?!

Quod sci­am. As far as I know.


Rogas?! How can you ask that?!


Secum cog­i­tat. He/she is think­ing to himself/herself.

Sed quid tum? so what?

Speciem men­di­ci pre­bere sole­bat. He usu­al­ly looked like a beggar. 


Tan­tum est. That’s all.

Tan­tum scio. That’s all I know.

Tem­pus est me abire. It is time for me to leave.

Tibi dico. I’m talk­ing to you.

Tuni­cam exuit. He/she took off the tunic. 

Tuni­cam induit. He puts on the tunic.


Ut iam tibi dixi. As I’ve already told you.


Ven­ter maxime dolet. His stom­ach hurt a lot. 

Vide quid agas! Be care­ful! Think about what you are doing.

Vinum posc­it. He orders wine. 

Visne quod bibas? Would you like some­thing to drink?


Below you’ll find all the illus­tra­tions from Pugio Bru­ti, drawn by Amelie Rosen­gren. Many teach­ers have asked for them to use in class do dis­cuss or describe. Feel free to use them but do not post them elsewhere.


Have you read Pugio Bru­ti care­ful­ly? Did you find all these east­er eggs?

Through­out the book there are more or less sub­tle ref­er­ences to works from Roman antiq­ui­ty. These come in the form of vari­a­tions of famous quotes, and even entire sen­tences from a range of authors, e.g. Ennius and Ovid.

Below you will find a list of them. If you haven’t found them yet, you could re-read each chap­ter while look­ing for them and then check back here.


“Tem­pus est me, Ter­en­tia, abire.” (p. xiii)

Ter­ence lying on his death bed utters these words to his daugh­ter Ter­en­tia. It is a sub­tle ref­er­ence to Socrates’ last words as giv­en by Cicero in his Tus­cu­lanae Dis­pu­ta­tiones: “tem­pus est,” inquit “iam hinc abire me, ut mori­ar, vos, ut vitam agatis.” (the time has now come,” he says, “to go away, I to die, you to go live your lives”.)  Cic. Tusc. Disp. 1.99.

“Omnia nostra—aurum, equ­os, alia multa—unus homo nobis abstulit.” (p. xiv)

This is a ref­er­ence to the line from from Ennius Annales, about Fabius Max­imus Cunc­ta­tor. The orig­i­nal line is quot­ed by Cicero in his De Senec­tute (“On Old Age”):

Unus homo nobis cunc­tan­do resti­tu­it rem.

“One man, by delay­ing, restored the state to us.”

(Cic. Off. 1.84)


“Hic est Lucius, asi­nus meus opti­mus, immo, aureus.” (p. xxv)

Ter­en­tia hav­ing wok­en up in a sta­ble is con­front­ed by a don­key, whose name she learns is Lucius. This is a very unsub­tle ref­er­ence to Apuleius’ work Meta­mor­phoseon lib­ri, also called Asi­nus aureus, which tells the tale of Lucius who by mag­ic was turned into a donkey.


“Nihil est,” respon­dit Clodius, “mecum tac­i­tus loque­bar.” “Cave,” inquit Oenus, “cum homine malo loqueris.” (p. xlvi­ii)

These words are uttered by Oeneus, the inn-keep­er, when Clodius says he is just talk­ing to him­self. The exchange is tak­en from a let­ter by Seneca in which he quotes Crates’ words:

Crates, cum vidis­set adules­cen­tu­lum secre­to ambu­lantem, inter­ro­gav­it quid illic solus fac­eret. “Mecum” inquit “loquor.” Cui Crates “cave,” inquit, “rogo et dili­gen­ter attende: cum homine malo loqueris”.

When Crates noticed a young man walk­ing by him­self, he asked him what he was doing all alone. “I am com­muning with myself,” replied the young man. “Be care­ful, then,” said Crates, “and take good heed; you are talk­ing with a bad man!”

(Sen. Ep. 1) 


Tum tuni­cam auro impo­suit ne quis malus reperire pos­set aurum. (p. lxviii)

Bru­tus’ son hav­ing acquired a cart, places the gold in it. To pre­vent any­one from see­ing it, he cov­ers it with his tunic. This line refers to a line from Cat­ul­lus, but for the poet it is kiss­es not gold that is to be hidden:

con­turbabimus illa, ne sciamus,

aut neq­uis malus invidere possit,

cum tan­tum sci­at esse basiorum. 

“We will mix them [the kiss­es], so that we know [how many there are], nor any mali­cious per­son be envi­ous of them, when he knows that our kiss­es are so many.”

(Cat. 5)


“Aurum et error.” (p. lxxvii)

As Clodius and Ursu­la are leav­ing for Gaul, Ursu­la asks what the rea­son for the sud­den flight is. Clodius respond­ing says only these words. In the sto­ry they refer to the stolen gold and a mis­take Clodius thinks that he has com­mit­ted. The words are a ref­er­ence to the famous lines from Ovid’s Tris­tia:

per­diderint cum me duo crim­i­na, car­men et error,

alterius fac­ti cul­pa silen­da mihi:

“Though two crimes, a poem and a blun­der have brought me ruin, of my fault in the one I must keep silent.”

(Ov. Trist. 2.1)


Sic eat quicumque homo mihi aurum aufer­et! (p. lxxviii)

Ter­en­tia, hav­ing stabbed Clodius, utters these words. They are inspired by a famous line from Livy. The vic­to­ri­ous Hor­atius return­ing from bat­tle kills his sis­ter because she was mourn­ing the death of her hus­band, killed in bat­tle by Hor­atius. Hav­ing killed her he exclaims:

Sic eat quae­cumque Romana lugebit hostem!

“So per­ish every Roman woman who mourns a foe!”

(Liv. 1.26)

Latin–English word form glossary

Below you will find a full Latin-Enlish glos­sary of every word form in the book.

This wordlist gives the Eng­lish equiv­a­lent of each Latin word form in Pugio Bru­ti — A Crime Sto­ry in Easy Latin. For exam­ple, if you look up videret it will give the trans­la­tion appro­pri­ate to the par­tic­u­lar occur­rences of the form in the text. So, under videret, you may find, “to see”from e.g. hoc fecit ut videret, “she did this to see“and “could see”from e.g. cum nihil videret “since she could not see anything.”

You could use this glos­sary as a word-for-word trans­la­tion of Pugio Bru­ti, but it is real­ly meant as a sup­ple­men­tal aid to be used only when needed.

Word form glossary of Pugio Bruti — A Crime Story in Easy Latin


ā                                         from, by

ab                                       from, by

abeat in malam rem          may he/she go to hell! (lit May he/she go to the bad thing)

aber­at                                 he/she/it was far away from

abe­un­dum                         have/has to go

abe­un­tem                           (while) going away

abe­un­tī                              as he/she was going away

abī                                      go away!

abībant                              they were going/walking away/leaving

abī­bat                                 he/she was going/walking away/leaving

abībō                                  I’ll go/leave

abier­at                                he/she had gone away/left

abiērunt                             They went away/left

abi­is­set                               he/she had gone away/left

abi­istī                                 you went away/left

abi­it                                   he/she went away/left

abīn’ in malam rem?         will you just go to hell?!

abīre                                   to go away

abīret                                 to go away

ablātō                                 stolen/taken

ablā­tus est                          has been/was stolen/taken

abstergēre                          to wipe off 

absterser­at                          had wiped 

abster­sit                             wiped

abstuler­at                           had taken/stolen

abstu­ler­it                           has taken/stolen

abstulī                                I stole/ I have stolen

abstulisse                           had stolen

abstulistī                            you stole/ you have stolen

abstulit                              he/she stole/has stolen

abter­sō                               hav­ing been wiped

accēde hūc!                        come here!

accē­den­tis                          (of some­one) approaching

acces­sit                               approached/walked up to

ad                                       to, toward, at

ader­ant                              were there/were present 

adest                                  is here

adi­u­vā                                help

adi­u­vābant                         were helping/were of help

adi­u­vābisne                        will you help?

adi­u­vāre                             help 

adi­u­vat                               he/she/it helps

adi­u­vetne                           helps

adiūvī                                 I helped

adiūvis­set                           had helped

adiūvistī                             you helped

adnuē­bat                            he/she nodded/was nodding

adnu­it                                nod­ded

adulēscēns                          young man

adulēs­cente                        young man

adulēs­cen­tem                     young man

adulēs­cen­tēs                       young men

adulēs­cen­tī                         to/for the young man

adulēs­cen­tis                       of the young man/young man’s

aedēs                                  house, build­ing

aed­ibus                              house, build­ing

aedi­um                               of the house/building; house’s

Aëtiī                                   Aetius’

affer                                   bring!

affer                                   bring (me)

affer­ās                                bring

agās                                    you are doing; vide quid agas! Think about what you are doing (threat)

age!                                    come on!

agēbās                                were doing

agō                                     see’grātiās tibi agō’

ain’?                                   real­ly? is that so?

aiō                                      I do say

ais                                      are you saying

Alexan­drīam                      Alexan­dria, city in Egypt

alia                                     anoth­er; oth­er things 

ali­ae                                   oth­er

aliam                                  anoth­er; aliam post aliam,one after the other

aliī                                      some, oth­er 

aliīs                                    oth­er

aliō                                     anoth­er 

aliquem                              some­one

aliq­uid                               some­thing

aliquis                                some­one

ali­ud                                  anoth­er; nihil ali­ud,noth­ing else

ali­um                                 anoth­er 

alter                                   the oth­er; alter alterum,each oth­er 

alterā                                  anoth­er, the other

alterum                              anoth­er; seealter

amplius                              fur­ther, more

an                                       or

ancil­la                                female ser­vant, slave girl

ancil­lā                                female ser­vant, slave girl

ancil­lam                             female ser­vant, slave girl

ancil­lās                               female ser­vants, slave girls

ancil­līs                               female ser­vants, slave girls

ante                                    before, in front of

ante                                    ear­li­er, pre­vi­ous­ly, before

ante­quam                           before

ānulīs                                 rings

ānulōs                                rings

aperīrī                                open

apertā                                 hav­ing been opened; open

aper­ta est                           was opened

apertō                                hav­ing been opened; open

apertōs                               open

aper­tus est                         was opened

ape­ruer­at                           had opened

ape­ruit                               opened

argen­teī                              of sil­ver

argen­teum                         of sil­ver

argen­teus                           (made) of silver

asi­na                                  Asi­na, name of Oeneus’ tavern

asinā                                  Asi­na, name of Oeneus’ tavern

asi­nam                               Asi­na, name of Oeneus’ tavern

asinō                                  don­key 

asinōrum                           of don­keys

asinōs                                 don­keys

asinum                               don­key 

asi­nus                                 don­key 

at                                       but; (in dia­logue) then, and

Athēnās                              to Athens

attulī                                  I brought

attulit                                 You brought

audī!                                  lis­ten!

audiē­bat                             was listening/listened

audīn’?!                              Do you hear?!

audiō                                 I hear (you)

audītā                                hav­ing been heard

audīvī                                 I heard

audīvit                               he/she/ it heard

aufer­et                               he/she/it steal

aufer­ret                              to steal

Augustī                              Augus­tus’

Augustō                             from Augus­tus

Augus­tum                          Augus­tus

Augus­tus                            Augus­tus

aurea                                  gold­en

aureae                                gold­en

aureīs                                 gold­en

aureōs                                gold­en

aureus                                gold­en

aurī                                    of gold

aurō                                   gold

aurum                                gold

aut                                     or

autem                                but, how­ev­er, on the oth­er hand, etc


bar­bā                                  beard

bar­bae                                beards

bar­bam                              beard

bene                                   well

bibās                                  to drink

bibēbam                             was drink­ing

bibē­bat                              was drink­ing

bibere                                to drink

biberet                               to drink

bibis­set                              had drunk

bib­it                                   drank

Bombius                            Bombius

bona                                   good

bonī                                   good

bonōs                                 good

bonus                                 good

brevem                               short

brevī                                  short

bre­vis                                 short

Brūtī                                  Bru­tus’

Brū­tus                                Bru­tus


caden­tem                           falling

Cae­sar                                Cae­sar

Cae­sarem                           Cae­sar

calor                                   heat, warmth

calōrem                              heat, warmth

can­di­dam                           (shin­ing) white

capil­lō                                hair

capil­lōs                              hair

capil­lus                              hair

capite                                 head

capitī                                  on the head

capi­tis                                of the head

caput                                  head

caupō                                 innkeep­er

caupō­na                             inn, bar

caupōnā                             inn, bar

caupō­nae                           of the inn, bar/inns, bars

caupō­nam                          inn, bar

caupōnem                          inn, bar

caupōnīs                            inns, bars

cavē                                    beware, look out

cecid­it                                fell

cēlā­bat                               was hid­ing

cēlāret                                was hid­ing

cēlat                                   is hid­ing

cēlāvit                                hid

celerit­er                              quick­ly, fast

celerius                              faster

cel­er­rimē                            very fast

Cir­cī Max­imī                     Of Cir­cus Maximus

Cir­cum Max­i­mum            Cir­cus Maximus

cir­cum­spex­it                      looked around

cir­cum­spiceret                   to look around

cir­cum­spi­ciēbant               were look­ing around

clāmā­bat                            was scream­ing

clāmāns                              scream­ing

clā­man­tem                         scream­ing

clā­man­tī                             to x screaming

clāmās                                you are screaming

clāmā­tum est                     there was yelling, ie peo­ple yelled

clāmāvit                             screamed

clausā                                 hav­ing been closed

clauser­at                            had closed

clausit                                closed

Clōdī                                 Clodius

Clōdiī                                Clodius’

Clōdiō                               to Clodius

Clōdi­um                            Clodius

Clōdius                              Clodius

cōgitā                                 think

cōgitā­bat                            was think­ing

cōgitāns                             think­ing

cōgi­tante                            think­ing

cōgitāvit                             thought

cōnā­tus es                          you tried

cōnā­tus est                         he tried

con­clāve                             room

con­clāvī                             room

con­clāvis                            of the room

cōnor                                 I try

cōn­sēdit                             sat down

cōn­sīde                              sit down!

cōn­sīderet                          to sit down

cōn­sis­ten­tem                     sit­ting down

cōn­spec­tā                           hav­ing been seen

cōn­spec­tō                          hav­ing been seen

cōn­spex­it                           caught sight of

cōn­spicer­en­tur                   could be seen

cōn­spicerē­tur                     to be seen

cōn­spi­ciēban­tur                 were vis­i­ble, could be seen

cōn­stit­er­at                         had stopped

cōn­sti­tit                             stopped

con­ver­sa                             hav­ing turned around

con­ver­sō                            hav­ing been turned

con­ver­sus                           hav­ing turned around

con­vertērunt                      turned (around)

con­ver­tit                            turned (around)

cru­en­ta                              bloody, cov­ered in blood

cru­en­tā                              bloody, cov­ered in blood

cru­en­tam                           bloody, cov­ered in blood

cru­en­tō                              bloody, cov­ered in blood

cru­en­tōs                             bloody, cov­ered in blood

cru­en­tum                           bloody, cov­ered in blood

cru­en­tus                             bloody, cov­ered in blood

cucur­rerat                          had run

cucur­rī                               I ran

cucur­ristī                           you ran

cucur­rit                              ran

cui                                      for whom

cuius                                  whose

cum                                   with, togeth­er with

cūr                                     why?

curre                                  run!

cur­rēbant                           were run­ning

cur­rē­bat                             was run­ning

cur­rentem                          run­ning

cur­rere                               to run

cūstōdēs                             guards

cūstōdibus                         guards

cūstōs                                 guard


dā!                                      give!

dabō                                   I will give

dare                                    give 

daret                                  to give 

dē                                       down from

dēbē­bat                              should

dēbēre                                should

dēbēs                                  you should

dēbet                                  should

dēbuit                                should

ded­eris                               give

ded­it                                  gave

dem                                   I can give you

dēs­cen­den­dum est             have to get off

dēs­cen­dit                           got off

deum                                 god

dī                                       gods

dīc                                      speak!

dīcam                                 I will say

dīcē­bat                               was say­ing

dīcent                                (they) will say

dīcere                                 to say, speak, refer to

dīceret                                could say

dīcis                                   you say

dīc­i­tur                                is said to

dīcō                                    I say, I speak, I refer to

diē                                      day; alio dieanoth­er day

diēs                                    day; days

diū                                     long, for a long time

diūtius                               longer, for a longer time

dīves                                  rich

dīvitem                              rich

dīvitēs                                rich

dīx­er­at                               had said

dīxī                                    I said, I told (you)

dīx­istī                                 You said

dīx­it                                   (he/she) said

dolē­bat                               (he/she/it) was hurting

doleō                                  I am sad, I am sor­ry (for)

dolēret                               (he/she/it) was hurting

domī                                  at home

domō                                 from the house

domum                              home, house

domūs                                of the house

dōna                                  gifts

dōnum                               gift

Dōrip­pa                             Dorip­pa

dormiē­bat                          was sleep­ing

dormien­dum est                have to sleep

dormiente                          sleep­ing

dor­mīre                              (to) sleep

dor­mī­tum                          to sleep

dor­mīver­at                         had slept

dor­mīvistī                          you (have) slept

duās                                   two

dūceret                               (would) lead

dūcet                                  will lead

duc­tūrum esse                   will lead

dum                                   while, as long as, until

duo                                    two

duōbus                               two; by two

duōs                                   two

dūx­er­ant                            had led

dūx­it                                  led


ē                                         from, out of, out from

ea                                       those (things), that, 

eā                                       her, of, with that

eādem                                the same

eam                                    her, it

eat                                      may he go

ecce                                    look!

effūdī                                 I poured out

effūdis­tī                             you poured out

effūdit                                poured out

effūdit                                (he/she) poured out

effundī                               being poured out

effundis                             you are pour­ing out

effūsō                                 hav­ing been poured out

effū­sum                             hav­ing been poured out

ego                                     I

ēgre­di­en­dum est                have to leave

ēgres­sa                               hav­ing stepped out, left

ēgres­sa es                           you went out, stepped out

egres­sa est                          she went out

ēgres­sam                            hav­ing stepped out

ēgressī sumus                     we left

ēgres­sus                              hav­ing stepped out

ēgres­sus est                        he stepped out

eī                                        him, her

eius                                    his, hers, its

enim                                  for

eō                                       to that place, there

eō                                       him, it, that

eōdem                                the same

eōs                                     them

equī                                    hors­es

equīs                                  hors­es

equōrum                            of the horses

equōs                                 hors­es

equ­um                               horse

erant                                  were

erat                                    were

errat                                   is wrong

errāvī                                 I was wrong

errāvimus                           We were wrong

errō                                    I am wrong

error                                   mis­take, error

es                                       you are

esse                                    to be

essent                                 were

esset                                   were

essetne                               whether­were

est                                      he/she/it is

estne                                  is it?

et                                        and, also

et…et                                both…and

eti­am                                 even, also; still 

eum                                   him, it

eumque                              and…it

eun­dem                             the same

eun­dum est                        have to go

eunt                                   go

eun­tem                              going

eun­tēs                                going

ex                                       from, out of, out from

excitāre                              to rouse, to wake

excitā­ta erat                       she had been awoken

excitā­ta est                         she was awoken

excitā­tus est                       he was awoken

exclāmāvit                         shout­ed

exspec­tābant                      were wait­ing

exspectan­dum sit               have to wait

exspec­tant                          are wait­ing

exspec­tāre                          to expect, wait, wait for

exspec­tāret                         to wait

exspec­tāvit                         wait­ed

exuit                                  took off


fac­er­ent                              to do

fac­eret                                to do

faci­am                                I will (do); shall do

faciē                                   appear­ance; qua facie est? What does he/she/it look like?

faciem                                face, appear­ance

facien­dum esse                  had to be done

fac­tō                                   hav­ing been made

fēcī                                     I did, acted

fēcimus                              (we) did

fēcisse                                had done

fēcistī                                 you did; you have done

fēc­it                                    (he/she/it) made, did

fēmi­na                               woman

fēmi­nae                              wom­an’s; from the woman

fēmi­nam                            woman

fer­ē­bat                               lead

fīlia                                    daugh­ter

fīliā                                    daugh­ter

fīliam                                 daugh­ter

fīliī                                     of the son

fīliō                                    for, to the son

fīli­um                                 son 

fīlius                                  son 

flā­va                                   yel­low

flāvā                                   yel­low

flā­vae                                 yel­low

flā­vam                                yel­low

flāvās                                  yel­low

flāvī                                    yel­low

flāvō                                   yel­low

flāvum                               yel­low

fluē­bat                               flowed

fluē­bat                               was flow­ing; ei san­guis e ven­tre capite fluit, he/she is bleed­ing from the head (lit For him/herblood is flow­ing from the head)

fluit                                    flows

forās                                   out­side, out

forīs                                   out­side

forō                                    mar­ket-place, square

for­t­asse                              per­haps, maybe

forum                                mar­ket-place, square

frī­gus                                 cold

fuer­at                                 had been

fūger­at                               had run away, fled

fugiē­bat                             was run­ning away

fugien­tem                          run­ning away

fugimus                             we are run­ning away

fūgit                                   (he/she) ran away

fuimus                               we were

fuisse                                  have been; had been

fuistīne                              you were?

fuit                                     (he/she/it) was


Gal­liā                                 Gaul (rough­ly mod­erns France)

Gal­liam                              Gaul (rough­ly mod­erns France)

ger­am                                 I will wear

gerē­bat                               (he/she/it) was wearing

gerere                                 to wear

geris                                   you are wearing

ger­it                                   (he/she) is wearing

ger­itne                               does he/she/it wear?

gradū                                 step; grad­um fēc­it, took a step

Grae­cum                            Greek, Gre­cian

Grae­cus                             Greek, Gre­cian

grā­ti­amhabeō                     I am grateful

grātiās tibi agō                   thank you


habēbant                            (they) had

habē­bat                              (he/she/it) had

habēbit                              (he/she/it) will have

habē­mus                            we have 

habent                               they have 

habeō                                 I have

habēre                                to have

habēs                                  you have 

habet                                  he/she/it has 

habuer­ant                          (they) had had

habuisse                             had

hāc                                     this 

hae                                     these

haec                                   this (woman); these things 

hanc                                   this

hās                                     these

her­cle                                 by Her­cules! 

heus                                   hey!

hic                                      this 

hīc                                      here; at this moment

hīs                                      (with) these

hoc                                     this, 

hōc                                     this

homine                              man, per­son

hominem                           man, per­son

hom­inēs                             peo­ple

hominibus                         peo­ple

homin­is                             of the per­son, man

hominum                          of peo­ple

homō                                 man, per­son

hōs                                     these

hūc                                     here, to this place

humī                                  on the ground

hunc                                  this

huncine                             this one?


ī!                                        go!

iacē­bat                               (he/she/it) was lying

iacēns                                 lying

iacen­tem                            lying

iacēre                                 to lie

iacet                                   (he/she/it) is lying

iam                                    already

iānua                                  door

iānuā                                  by the door

iānu­ae                                to the door; doors

iānu­am                              door

iānuīs                                 doors

ībant                                  (they) were going

ībat                                    (he/she/it) was going

ibi                                      there

ībimus                               we will go

ībit                                     (he/she/it) will go

id                                       that

idem                                  the same (thing)

īdem                                  the same

ier­at                                   (he/she/it) had gone

iērunt                                 (they) went

iīs                                       them

iīs­dem                                the same

iisse                                    (to think that she) went

iit                                       (he/she/it) went

illa                                      she

illae                                    they, those

illam                                  her; that

ille                                      he; that

illī                                      for him, his; from her

illīs                                     those; illis tem­po­ribusin those days

illīus                                   of that

illō                                     that

illud                                   that

illum                                  him, that

immō                                 in fact, no rather

impōneret                          to puton

impositā                             hav­ing been placed

impositīs                            hav­ing been placed

impo­suit                            (he/she) put

imprūdēns                         thought­less, through carelessness

imprūdēns (aliq­uid facere)   to do some­thing by mistake

īmus                                   (we) are going

in                                       in at, on

in                                       into, to, against

induis                                you put on

induit                                 (he/she) put on

indū­tum                            dressed in

indū­tus                              dressed in

ingre­di­en­tem                     enter­ing

ingres­sa est                        (she) entered

ingressī sunt                      (they) entered

ingres­sus est                       (he) entered

inquam                              I say 

inquit                                 he/she says/said

īnspex­it                              (he/she) looked into

intel­legē­bat                        (he/she) under­stood

intel­legere                          under­stand

intel­le­git                            (he/she) under­stands

intel­legō                             I under­stand

intel­lēxī                              I have understood

intel­lēx­it                            (he/she) real­ized, understood

inter­fēcer­it                         (he/she) killed

inter­fēcī                             I have killed

inter­fē­cisse                         to have killed

intrāvērunt                        (they) entered

intrāvit                               (he/she) entered

intuēbā­tur                         (he/she) was look­ing at…

intuēns                               look­ing at…

intuen­tēs                            look­ing at…

intuen­tī                              for some­one look­ing at…

intuēre                               look at

intuērī                                look at

intuēris                              you look at

intui­ta esset                       she had look at

intui­ta est                          she look at

intu­itī sunt                        (they) looked at

intu­i­tus est                        (he) looked at

Iovem                                Jupiter

ipsa                                    myself, itself

ipse                                    (he) him­self

ipsī                                     from him­self

ipsō                                    very, exact

ipsum                                 this exact one; nunc ipsum right now

īrā­ta                                   angry

īrā­tior                                angri­er

īrātīs                                   with angry

īrātis­si­mam                        very angry

īrātis­simus                         very angry

īrā­tus                                 angry

īre                                      (to) go

īrent                                   to go

īret                                     was going

is                                        he

ita                                      so, in that way; just so, yes

itaque                                 so, thus

Iūli­um                               Julius

Iup­piter                             Jupiter, God of the sky

iūrō                                    I swear

iux­tā                                  next to


lapi­de                                 with a stone

lapi­dem                              stone

lapidēs                               stones

lapis                                   (with) stone

Latīnē                                in Latin, Latin

lec­tō                                   bed

licetne?                              may I?

licuit                                  was allowed

līneae                                 lines

līneās                                 lines

līneīs                                  lines

locō                                    place

locum                                place, spot

locū­ta est                           (she) spoke

locū­tus erat                        (he) had spoken

locū­tus est                         (he) spoke

Londīniī                            in Lon­don

Londīni­um                        to Lon­don

longā                                  long

longē                                  far; far away

longis­si­mam                      longest, real­ly long

longius                               longer; fur­ther

longum                              long

longus                                long

loquēbar                            I was speaking

loquēbā­tur                         (he/she) was speaking

loquentem                         speak­ing

loquen­tēs                           speak­ing

loqueris                              you are speaking

loquī                                  speak

loquitur                             (he/she) speaks

lūcēbant                             (they) were shining

lūcē­bat                               was shin­ing

lūcent                                are shin­ing

lūcente                               shin­ing

Lūci­um                              Lucius, name of the ass 

Lūcius                                Lucius, name of the ass 

lūmen                                light

Lute­tia                               Paris

Lute­ti­ae                             in Paris

Lute­ti­am                            (to) Paris


mac­u­la                               spot, stain

mac­ulā                               spot, stain

mac­u­lae                             spots, stains

mac­u­lam                            spot, stain

mac­ulās                              spots, stains

mac­ulīs                              with spots, stains

magna                                large

mag­nā                                large

mag­nī                                large

mag­nīs                               (with) large

mag­nō                               large

mag­num                            large, great

mag­nus                              large, great

maius                                 greater, larg­er

malam                                see abin’

male                                   bad­ly; wrong

malō                                  bad

malum                               bad; quid, malum… what the hell…

malumne                           (is) it bad?

malus                                 bad

manē                                  stay! wait!

manēre                               to stay, to wait, to remain

manibus                             with (his/her) hands

mān­sit                                (he/she) stayed

manū                                 (with) the hand

manum                              hand

manūs                                hands

Mārs                                  Mars, God of War

Martem                             Mars, God of War

max­i­mam                          great

max­imē                              great­ly

max­imō                             large, big

mē                                      me

mea                                    my

meā                                    my

meae                                  my

mēcum                               with me

media                                 mid­dle of, middle

mediā                                 mid­dle of, middle

medi­am                             mid­dle of, middle

mediō                                mid­dle of, middle

medi­um                             mid­dle of, middle

melius                                bet­ter

mem­inerō                          I will remember

mem­inī                              I remem­ber

mem­i­nistīne                      do you remember?

mendīcī                             beg­gars, of the beggar

mendīcō                            beg­gar

mendīcum                         beg­gar

mendī­cus                           beg­gar

mēn­sa                                table

mēn­sā                                table

mēn­sam                             table

mentem                             mind; alicui­in mentem ven­it it occurred to someone

men­tīris                             you are lying

men­tī­tam esse                    hav­ing lied

men­tī­tur                            (he/she) is lying

meō                                    my

meum                                my

meus                                  my, mine

mī                                      my

mihi                                   (for) me

min­is­ter                             serv­er

min­istrō                             (to the) server

min­istrum                         serv­er

mīsērunt                            (they) let go

mīsī                                    I sent

mīsistī                                you sent

mīsit                                  sent

mis­sō                                 hav­ing let go of

mitte!                                 let go of!

mit­tere                               let go of

mit­ter­ent                           send

modo                                 only, just, just now

modō                                 way

mori­ar                                I will die

mor­tua es / est                   you are/she is dead; she died

mor­tu­am                           dead

mor­tuō                              dead

mor­tu­um esse                    dead

mor­tu­us                             dead

mōver­at                             had moved

mōvērunt                           moved

mōvit                                 moved

mox                                   soon

mul­ta                                 many (things)

multās                                many

multī                                  many

multō                                 by much, much

multōs                               many

mul­tum                             much

mul­tumne                          much…?


nār­rā!                                 tell me!

nār­randī                             to tell

nār­ran­tī                              telling

nār­rāre                               to tell

nār­rās                                 you are talk­ing about; bene nar­ras, good news!

nār­rāver­at                          had said

nār­rāvit                              told­about

nār­rem                               to tell you; est quod tibi nar­rem, I have some­thing to tell you

nē                                       so that…not

nēminem                           no one

nēmō                                 nobody, no one

neque                                 nor, and…not; neque…neque,neither…nor

nes­ci­at                               does not know

nesciēbant                          did not know

nesciē­bat                            did not know

nesciō                                I don’t know

nescīre                               to not know

nescīs                                 you don’t know

nesc­it                                 he/she don’t know

nigram                               black

nigrō                                  black capil­lo nigro with black hair

nihil                                   noth­ing, not…anything

nimis                                  too

nōbīs                                  for us; from us

nōbīs­cum                           with us

nocte                                  at night

noc­tēs                                nights

noctibus                             nights

noc­tū                                 at night, by night

nōlē­bat                              (he/she) did not want to

nōlō                                   I don’t want, I refuse

nōluī                                  I did non want to

nōmen                               name

nōmine                              by the name of

nōn                                    not

nōnne…?                           do you not…? Isn’t? etc

nōstīn’?                              do you know?

nos­tra                                 our things

nōver­at                              (he/she) knew

novī                                   new

nōvī                                   I know

nōvit                                  (he/she) knows

novō                                  new

nox                                    night

nūl­la                                  no, no one

nūl­lam                               no, no one

nūl­lī                                   no; from no…

nūl­lō modō                        in no way, not at all

num                                   whether

num­mīs                             coins

num­mō                              coin

num­mōs                            coins

num­mum                          coin

numquam                          nev­er

numquid vis,                     have you any­thing fur­ther to say? was there any­thing else? do you want me further?

nunc                                  now

nun­ci­am                            right now, now

nusquam                            nowhere


ō                                        O, oh!

obscūra                              dark

obscūrā                              dark

obscūrae                            dark

obscūram                           dark

obscūrās                             dark

obscūrīs                             dark

obscūrō                              dark

obscūrum                          dark

oculī                                  eyes

oculīs                                 eyes

oculōs                                eyes

ocu­lum                              eyes

Oeneum                            Oeneus, name of the inn-keeper

Oeneus                              Oeneus, name of the inn-keeper

offendit                              (he) ran into

ōlim                                   once, at one time

omne                                 all (of which)

omnem                              the whole

omnēs                                all

omnia                                every­thing, all

opti­mē                               excel­lent­ly, extreme­ly well

opti­mum                           excel­lent, best

opti­mus                             excel­lent, best

opus est                             there is need


pal­l­i­da                                pale

pal­lidus                              pale

par­iēs                                 wall

pari­ete                                wall

pari­etem                            wall

pari­etēs                              walls

pari­etī                                wall

pari­etibus                           walls

pari­etis                               of the wall

par­va                                  small, lit­tle

parvā                                  small, lit­tle

par­vae                                small, lit­tle

par­vam                               small, lit­tle

parvās                                small, lit­tle

Parve                                  Parvus (name)

parvīs                                 small, lit­tle

parvō                                 small, lit­tle

parvum                              small, lit­tle

parvus                                small, lit­tle

pater                                  father

patre                                  father

patrem                               father

patrī                                   to the father

patris                                  father’s, of father

paulisper                            for a lit­tle time, for a lit­tle while

paulō                                 a lit­tle

per                                     through, over, (in swear­ing)by

per­cusser­at                         (he/she) had struck, stabbed

per­cus­sis­set                        (he/she) had struck

per­cus­sit                            (he/she) struck, stabbed

per­cus­sus erat                    (he) had been struck, stabbed

per­cutere                           to strike, to stab

per­gite!                              con­tin­ue!

perīculōsa                          dan­ger­ous

perīculōsae                         dan­ger­ous

perīculōsam                       dan­ger­ous

perīculō­sis­si­ma                  very dan­ger­ous

perīculō­sum                       dan­ger­ous

per­rēx­it                              (he/she) con­tin­ued

placēbant                           were pleas­ing; bar­bae place­bant, she liked beards

placē­bat                             was pleas­ing; Por­ta Cape­na ei non place­bat, He did not like Por­ta Capena

pla­cent                               are pleas­ing; tuni­cae non pla­cent, I do not like yel­low tunics

placet                                 is pleas­ing

plānē                                  clear­ly, absolutely

plaus­trī                              cart’s, of cart

plaus­trō                             cart

plaus­trum                          cart

plē­na                                  full

plēnā                                  full

plē­nam                               full

plēnō                                 full

plēnum                              full

plēnus                                full

pōcu­la                                cups

pōculō                               cup

pōcu­lum                            cup

pon­tem                              bridge

Pon­tem Aemil­i­um             The Aemil­ia Bridge

poposc­it                             (he/she) asked for

Por­ci­ae                               Por­ci­a’s, of Por­cia (Por­cia was Bru­tus’ wife)

por­ta                                  gate

portā                                  gate

Por­ta Capē­na                    Por­ta Capena

Portā Capēnā                    Por­ta Capena

Por­ta Flū­men­tā­na             Por­ta Flumentana

por­tam                               gate

Por­tam Capē­nam              Por­ta Capena

Por­tam Flū­men­tā­nam       Por­ta Flumentana

portīs                                 gates

poscē­bat                             (he/she) was ask­ing for

positō                                 hav­ing been placed, put down

posse                                  (to) be able to

pos­set                                 (he/she) could

pos­sim                               can; nihil est quod reperire non pos­sim, there is noth­ing that I can­not find

pos­sum                              I can, I’m able, I may

post                                    lat­er, after­ward; post,prep with acc,behind, after

posteā                                after­wards, thereafter

posuer­at                             (he/she) had placed, put

posu­istī                              you placed, put

posuit                                (he/she) placed, put down

poter­at                               (he/she) could

poter­imus                          we will be able to

poterō                                I will be able to

potesne                              can you?

potuī                                  I could, I was able to

prae                                    in front of

prae­bēbant                         held forth; speciem alicuius rei prae­bere, look like something

praebent                            speciem praebent, they look like (lit Hold forth the appear­ance of something)

prae­bēre                             speciem prae­bere, look like

prae­bē­tur                           species Cir­ci Max­i­mi prae­be­tur, it looks like Cir­cus Max­imus (lit The appear­ance of Cir­cus Max­imus is held forth)

praetere­un­tem                   pass­ing by

praeterī­bat                         was pass­ing by

prae­ter­iērunt                     passed by

prae­teri­it                            passed by

pre­hen­dent                        (they) will seize, arrest

pre­hen­deret                       seize

pre­hendērunt                     (they) seized

pre­hendī                            I seized; being seized

pre­hendis­tīne                     did you seize, grab hold of?

pre­hen­dit                           (he/she) grabbed

pro­fec­tō                             sure­ly, cer­tain­ly, indeed

prōme!                               take out!

prōmp­sit                            (he/she) took out

prōmp­tōs                           hav­ing been tak­en out

prōmp­tum                         hav­ing been tak­en out

prope                                 near, almost

prox­imā                             last; prox­i­ma nocte, last night

prox­i­mam                          clos­est, nearby

prox­imī                              of the clos­est, next to

prox­imīs                            the last few, cou­ple of

prox­imō                             close, near­by

prox­i­mum                         clos­est, next to

prox­imus                           clos­est, next to

puer                                   boy

puerō                                 to the boy

puerum                              boy

pūgiō                                 dag­ger

pūgiōne                             dag­ger, with the dagger

pūgiōnem                          dag­ger

pūgiōnēs                            dag­gers

pūgiō­nis                             of the dagger

pugnāre                             to fight

pugnātis                             (you) are fighting

pugnāver­at                         (he/she) had fought

pugnāvit                            (he/she) fought

pugnō                                with the fist

pul­cher                              beau­ti­ful, handsome

pul­cher­rimus                     very beau­ti­ful, very handsome 

pul­chrōs                             beau­ti­ful, handsome

pul­chrum                           beau­ti­ful, handsome

pūrā                                   clean

pūrae                                 clean

pūram                                clean

pūri­or                                clean­er

pūriōrēs                             clean­er

pūrō                                   clean

putābam                            I thought

putābant                            (they) thought

putā­bat                              (he/she) thought

putābunt                            (they) will think

putās                                  you think

putāvī                                I thought

putō                                   I think


quā                                     which; with which

quae                                   which

quaer­am                             I will look for, search for

quaeren­dum erat               had to search for

quaerere                             to search for, to look for

quaer­eret                           should look for

quaeris                               you are look­ing, search­ing for

quaer­it                               (he/she) is look­ing, search­ing for

quaerō                                I search for, I look for

quaerunt                            (they) are look­ing, search­ing for

quaesīvit                            (he/she) searched, looked for

quāle?                                what sort, what (is) it like?

quālēs                                the kind that

quālis                                 what sort, what (is) it like?

quam                                 which, than, how 

quamquam                        although

quās                                   which

qua­si                                  as if

quem                                 whom, which

quī                                     who, which, what

quī                                     how?

quibus                                by which

quīcumque                        who­ev­er, what­so­ev­er, whatever

quid                                   what

quis                                    who

quō                                    where, where to?

quō                                    (by, in) which

quōcum                             with whom

quod                                  that, because, since

quō­mo­do                           how

quoque                              also, too


rae­da                                  car­riage, coach

raedā                                  car­riage, coach

raedam                               car­riage, coach

raedārum                           of car­riages, of coaches

raedās                                 car­riages, coaches

rē                                       thing, affair, matter

rēc­tē                                   right­ly, correct

recu­perābō                         I will recov­er, get back

recu­perāre                          to recov­er, to get back

recu­perāret                        (was sup­posed) to recover

recu­perāvī                          I have recovered

recu­perem                          Should I recover

recu­per­ent                         to recov­er, to get back

redī!                                   come back!

rediī                                   I returned

redi­is­set                             (he/she) had returned

redi­it                                  (he/she) returned

redīre                                 to go back, to return

redīte!                                come back!

reī                                      of thing, of affair, of fact, of mat­ter, of circumstance

relic­tā                                 hav­ing been left behind

relic­tum                             hav­ing been left behind

relin­quō                             I leave

relīquī                                I left

relīquimus                         we left

relīquit                               (he/she) left

rem                                    thing, affair, fact, mat­ter, circumstance

repe­riendā                         find­ing

repe­riendō                         find­ing

repe­ri­ent                            (they) will nev­er find

reperīre                              to find

reperīret                             to find

rep­per­erō                           find (will have found)

rep­perī                               I have found

rep­perisse                           have found

rep­peri­stī                           you have found

rep­peri­stīne                       have you found?

rēs                                      thing, affair, fact, mat­ter, circumstance

respondē!                           answer!

respon­der­it                        respond­ed

respondēs                           you respond

respon­dit                           (he/she) respond­ed

respōn­sum                         answer, response

restābant                            were left, remaining

restā­bat                              was left, remaining

restat                                  is left, remaining

rogā!                                   ask!

rogābō                               I will ask

rogāre                                to ask, to ask for

rogās                                  you ask

rogāver­at                            (he/she) had asked

rogāvī                                 I asked

rogāvit                               (she) asked

rogō                                   I ask

Rōma                                 Rome

Rōmā                                 Rome

Rōmae                               In Rome

Rōmam                              Rome

Rōmānō                             Roman

Rōmānum                         Roman

ruber                                  red

rubra                                  red

rubrā                                  red

rubram                               red

rubrās                                red

rubrī                                  red

rubrīs                                 red

rubrō                                 red

rubrum                              red

rūr­sus                                 again


sac­culō                               small sack

sac­cu­lum                           small sack

saepe                                  often

salvē!                                  hel­lo!

san­guine                            from blood

san­guinem                         blood

san­gui­nis                           (of) blood; mul­tum san­gui­nis, much blood 

san­guis                               blood

sce­les­ta                               crooked, crim­i­nal

sce­lestae                             of crooked, criminal

sce­lestam                           crooked, crim­i­nal

sce­leste                               crooked, crim­i­nal

sce­lestī                               crooked, crim­i­nal (peo­ple)

sce­lestīs                              to crim­i­nals

sce­lestis­si­ma                       very crooked, criminal

sce­lestō                              crooked, crim­i­nal

sce­lestōs                             crooked, crim­i­nal

sce­les­tum                           crooked, crim­i­nal

sce­les­tus                             crooked, crim­i­nal

sci­am                                 I know; qui sci­am, How should I know, be sure?

sciēbam                              I knew

sciē­bat                                (he/she) knew

sciō                                    I know 

scīre                                   to know

scīs                                     you know

scīsne?                                do you know?

scit                                     he/she knows

sē                                       him­self, herself

sēcum                                with him­self, her­self; secum cog­i­tavit, he/she though to him/herself

secū­ta erat                         she had followed

secū­ta sum/es/est               I fol­lowed, you fol­lowed, she followed

secū­tus est                         he fol­lowed

sed                                     but

sedēbant                            (they) were sitting

sedē­bat                               (he/she) was sitting

sedēns                                sit­ting

seden­tem                           sit­ting

seden­tī                               sit­ting

sēder­at                               (he/she) had sat

sedēre                                 to sit

sedēret                               (he/she) was sit­ting; to sit

sedet                                  he/she is sitting

sēdit                                   (he/she) sat

sel­lā                                    chair

sel­l­am                                chair

sel­l­īs                                   chairs

sem­per                               always, all the time

sene                                    old man

sen­em                                old man

senex                                  old man

senī                                    to the old man

sequēbā­tur                         (he/she) was following

sequere!                              fol­low!

sequerē­tur                          to fol­low

sequeris                              you are following

sequerisne?                         are you following?

sequī                                  (to) fol­low

sī                                        if, though

sibi                                     for him, her­self; his, hers

sīc                                      in this way, so

sig­nif­i­cant                          (they) mean

sig­nificārent                       (what) they meant

sig­ni­fi­cat                            (he/she/it) means

sim                                     I am

sim­i­lem                              sim­i­lar, like

sim­ilēs                                sim­i­lar, like

sim­ilis                                sim­i­lar, like

sine                                    with­out

sint                                     are

sīs                                       you are

sit                                       (he/she/it) is

sitne?                                  is (he/she/it)?

sōl                                      the sun

sōla                                    alone

sōlam                                 only

sōlās                                   only

sōle                                    the sun

solē­bat                               used to, be accus­tomed to

sōlem                                 the sun

soleō                                  I usu­al­ly…, am accus­tomed to

solēre                                 to be accus­tomed, to do some­thing often

solēsne                               do you usually…?

solet                                   (he/she) usu­al­ly…, is accus­tomed to

soletne                               does (he/she) usu­al­ly…, is (he/she/it) accus­tomed to?

sōlī                                     alone, only

sōlī                                     (to) the sun

sōlibus                               suns

sōlum                                 only

sonitū                                by the sound, noise

soni­tum                             sound, noise

speciem alicuius reī prae­bēre       to give the impres­sion of some­thing, to look like something

speciēs                                appear­ance

stā­bat                                 (he/she/it) was standing

stab­ulō                               sta­ble

stab­u­lum                           sta­ble

stan­tēs                                stand­ing

stāre                                   to stand

stās                                     you are standing

sta­tim                                right away, immediately

stetērunt                            (they) stood

stetit                                  (he/she/it) stood

suā                                     her, his

suae                                    her, his

suam                                  her, his

suās                                    her, his

sub­īrā­ta                              some­what angry, irritated

sub­īrā­tus                            some­what angry, irritated

subitō                                sud­den­ly

sub­rīdēns                           smil­ing

sub­rīsit                               (he/she) smiled

Sub­ūram                            an area of the city of Rome

suīs                                     his, hers, its

sum                                    I am

sūme!                                 take!

sumne?                               am I?

sump­sit                              (he/she) took (up)

sūmp­tā                               hav­ing been taken

sūmp­tīs                              hav­ing been taken

sūmp­tō                              hav­ing been taken

sūmp­tum                           hav­ing been taken

sumus                                we are

sunt                                    (they/there) are

suō                                     (with) his

super                                  on, (spread) over

surg­ere                               to rise, to get up 

sur­rēx­it                              (he/she) stood up

sus­pex­it                              (he/she) looked up

suum                                  his, hers, its


tacē!                                   qui­et!

tacēbant                             (they) were silent

tacē­bat                               (he/she) was silent

tacēs                                   you are silent

taci­ta                                  silent

taci­tam                              silent

tac­itō                                 silent

tac­i­tum                              silent

tac­i­tus                                silent

tacuērunt                           they were silent

tacuit                                 (he/she) was silent

tam                                    so

tamen                                how­ev­er, still, yet

tan­dem                              final­ly, at last

tan­tīs                                  such, great

tan­tum                               only; so much

tan­tus                                 so great, such

tē                                        you

tem­pore                             time; eodem tem­pore, at the same time

tem­po­ribus                        illis tem­po­ribus, in those days

tem­pus                               time

tenēbant                            (they) were holding

tenē­bat                               (he/she) was holding

tene­brae                             dark­ness

tene­brās                             dark­ness

tene­brīs                              dark­ness

tenēns                                hold­ing

tenēre                                 to hold

tenet                                  (he/she) is holding

Ter­en­tia                             Ter­en­tia

Ter­en­tiā                             Ter­en­tia

Ter­en­ti­ae                           Ter­en­ti­a’s, of Ter­en­tia; to Terentia

Ter­en­ti­am                          Ter­en­tia

Ter­en­tiī                             Ter­en­tius’

Ter­en­tius                           Ter­en­tius

Tiberī                                The riv­er Tiber in Rome

Tiber­im                             The riv­er Tiber in Rome

Tiberis                               The riv­er Tiber in Rome

tibi                                     for you, to you

trahē­bat                             (he/she/it) was drag­ging, pulling

trahēbā­tur                          (he/she/it) was being dragged, pulled

tra­here                               to drag, pull

trahī                                   being dragged, pulled

trāns                                   across, over

trāxērunt                            (they) dragged, pulled

trāx­it                                  (he/she/it) dragged, pulled

trēs                                     three

tū                                       you, your­self

tua                                     your

tuā                                     your

tuae                                    your

tuam                                  your

tum                                    then, next, at that time; in dia­logue, indi­cat­ing a change of speaker

tūne?                                  you?

tuni­ca                                tunic

tunicā                                tunic

tuni­cae                               tunics

tuni­cam                             tunic

tunicās                               tunics

tuum                                  your

tuus                                    your

tuusne                                yours?


ubi                                     where; as, conjwhen

umbra                                shad­ow

umbram                             shad­ow

umbrās                               shad­ows

ūna                                    one

ūnā                                    one

ūnam                                 one

unde                                  from where, from which place

ūnum                                 one

ūnus                                   one

urbe                                   city

urbem                                city

urbis                                  of the city, the city’s

urbs                                    city

Ursu­la                                Ursu­la

Ursu­lae                              Ursu­la’s, of Ursu­la; to Ursula

ut                                       (com­par­a­tive) as; that, in order that; (result)that


vac­ua                                 emp­ty

vac­uae                                emp­ty

vac­uam                              emp­ty

vac­uīs                                 emp­ty

vac­uō                                 emp­ty

vac­u­um                              emp­ty

valē                                    good­bye!

valet                                   (he/she) is well

vehe­menter                        vio­lent­ly, fiercely

velit                                    wants

velle                                   wants, to want

vel­let                                  want­ed

vēn­er­at                               (he/she/it) had come

vēner­is                               you come, will have come

vēnī                                    I came

veniēbant                           would come

venien­tēs                            com­ing

venīre                                 to come

vēnis­set                              (he/she/it) had come

vēnistī                                you came

ven­it                                  (he/she/it) comes

vēnit                                  (he/she/it) came; in mentem mihi ven­it; I real­ized, it came into my mind

veni­unt                              (they) come

ven­ter                                stom­ach

ven­tre                                stom­ach

ven­trem                             stom­ach

ven­trī                                 stom­ach

via                                      street

viā                                      street

viae                                    of the street / streets 

viam                                   street

Viam Appi­am                    Via Appia, a road in Rome-

Viam Aurēliam                  Via Aure­lia, road in Rome

viārum                               of the streets 

viās                                     streets

vidē!                                   look!

videat                                 (he/she/it) sees

vidēbam                             I was seeing

vidēban­tur                         (they) seemed

vidēbāris                            you seemed

vidē­bat                               (he/she/it) saw

vidēbā­tur                           (he/she/it) seemed

vidēbō                                I will see

viden­tur                             (they) seem

videō                                  I see 

vide­or                                I seem

vīderāsne…?                      Had you seen…?

vīder­at                               (he/she/it) had seen

vidēre                                 (to) see

vidērem                              I saw

vidēret                               (he/she/it) saw; to see

vidērē­tur                            (he/she/it) seemed

vīderint                              (they) see, will have seen

vidē­tur                               (he/she/it) seems

vīdī                                    I saw, have seen

vīdisse                                had seen

vīdis­tī                                 you saw, have seen

vīdis­tīne                             have you seen?

vīdit                                   (he/she) saw

viīs                                     (on) streets

vīn’…?                               do you want…?

vīna                                    types of wine

vīnī                                    of wine

vīnō                                   wine

vīnum                                wine

vir                                      man

virī                                     man’s, of man; men

virō                                    man

virum                                 man

vīs                                      you want

vīsa est                               (she/it) seemed

vīsne                                  do you want…?

vīvam                                 I will live

vīvere                                 live

vīvō                                    I live 

vix                                      hard­ly, barely

vocan­tī                               call­ing

vocātō                                hav­ing been called

vocāvit                               (he/she/it) called

volē­bat                               (he/she) want­ed

volō                                    I want

vult                                    (he/she) wants


Frequently Asked Questions About Pugio Bruti

Can I get the book from Amazon?

Not at the moment.

Is there an audiobook version?

Yes! There is a pro­fes­sion­al stu­dio record­ing of Pugio Bru­ti avail­able as a dig­i­tal down­load here.

Is Pugio Bruti Suitable For Autodidacts Wanting To Improve Their Latin?

Yes! It’s a per­fect book for exten­sive read­ing: the full Latin–English vocab­u­lary make Pugio Bru­ti very acces­si­ble for learn­ing on your own. If you’re unsure about the lev­el, be sure to read the first chap­ter above.

There is an online-course planned for the book as well, that will help you go through vocab­u­lary, gram­mar, read­ing and lis­ten­ing com­pre­hen­sion, and his­to­ry. The course will be avail­able in ear­ly 2019.

How large is the vocabulary?

The vocab­u­lary is approx­i­mate­ly 350 unique words, with a high lev­el of repetition.

Is the grammar sheltered?

The gram­mar is not shel­tered. The full range of Latin gram­mar is used. How­ev­er, sen­tences are not too long nor too dif­fi­cult but kept to a lev­el that makes gram­mar con­struc­tions com­mon to Latin lit­er­a­ture feel easy and famil­iar to the read­er. This gives you the oppor­tu­ni­ty to prac­tice and mas­ter your abla­tive absolutes, accusative with infini­tives, etc., while feel­ing in con­trol of the gram­mar, and enjoy­ing the story.

How much Latin do I need to know to read Pugio Bruti?

That’s a tricky ques­tion. We rec­om­mend you read the first chap­ter above or lis­ten to it if you’re inter­est­ed in the audio­book. It does con­tain a full Latin-Eng­lish vocab­u­lary, so fret not, should you not under­stand a some words.

The book repeats words in dif­fer­ent ways so that a word you might not under­stand to begin with, will become a nat­ur­al part of our own vocab­u­lary once you’ve fin­ished the book.

If you are a com­plete novice to the Latin lan­guage, we rec­om­mend you read the first half of Famil­ia Romana (the first vol­ume of Lin­gua Lati­na per se illus­tra­ta) first and then dive into the excit­ing sto­ry that is Pugio Bru­ti.

Why should I get the online course?

In the course, you will prac­tice your under­stand­ing of Latin and deep­en your knowl­edge, uti­lize words and gram­mar from the book and put your lis­ten­ing and read­ing abil­i­ties to the test. You will also learn more about Rome itself and the con­text in which the book takes place, as well as get a taste of ”real” Latin from Antiquity.

The course also pro­vides teach­ing mate­ri­als so that if you’re a teacher you can take the course and then use all the mate­ri­als pro­vid­ed in the course in your own class. No prep!

Can I use Pugio Bruti in the Classroom?

Yes. This book is per­fect for class­room settings.

The Latin-Eng­lish vocab­u­lary pro­vides you with all the vocab­u­lary that you need. The chap­ters are kept short so that it can be eas­i­ly divid­ed into lessons. It is also illus­trat­ed to enable exer­cis­es and help stu­dents under­stand the text. Since the book doesn’t shel­ter gram­mar you can also use it to prac­tice and illus­trate con­struc­tions com­mon to the Latin language.

The sto­ry is set in a his­tor­i­cal­ly authen­tic con­text, Augus­tan Rome, so that it can also be used for small his­to­ry lessons and dis­cus­sions about ancient Rome and Roman life. The text is sprin­kled with ref­er­ences to famous phras­es to enable even deep­er discussions.

We made sure to give the char­ac­ters in the book many lay­ers so that they too can be used as dis­cus­sion top­ics in class.

There is now an online video course for Pugio Bru­ti, with vide­o­lessons in Latin, exer­cis­es, and detailed com­men­tary on the lan­guage of the text. See above. We cre­at­ed it to min­i­mize prepa­ra­tion time for teach­ing. You can read more about it here and read this review by teacher Jessie Craft.

Can schools get a discount?

Yes. If you’re buy­ing copies for a school and want to bulk order more than a 10 copies, con­tact us at [email protected].